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Statements & Inferences
Direction: In each of the following question, some statements are given. They may be inferred from the main statement or not. Read both the statements carefully and mark:
- Statement: The Indian High Commission in Antigua and Barbuda had asked the authorities there to stop billionaire diamond trader Mehul Choksi from travelling around the world, sources said on Monday.
I. All billionaire diamond traders should immediately stop travelling to Antigua and Barbuda for the time being.
II. Mehul Choksi should seek asylum in some other country to avoid being caught.
III. The Indian High Commissioner should himself go and arrest Mehul Choksi.
1) If only I follows
2) If only II follows
3) If both I and II follow
4) If both II and III follow
5) If none of them followAnswer – 5) If none of them follow
None of the courses of action follow. All of them contain a lot of extraneous information and are impractical solutions.
- The lifeline of Mumbai is it train network. One of the most crowded places in the city. A Group of commuters of the Mumbai suburban railways called for a strike in response to the increase in the number of accidents in that route in the past one year due to overcrowding. The commuters want to continue the strike unless the authorities agree to increase the frequency of the trains in that route.
Which of the following can be inferred from the above statement?
1) Increase in the frequency of the trains would lead to decrease in number of such accidents
2) The trains in the Mumbai suburban run overcrowded
3) The railway authorities are in different to the safety of commuters
4) The railway did not increase the frequency in proportion to the increase in the number of commuters in the past one year
5) None of theseAnswer – 4) The railway did not increase the frequency in proportion to the increase in the number of commuters in the past one year
For 1: Here the commuters called on the strike in a response to the accidents which take place due to overcrowding and are demanding increase in the frequency of trains, assuming that if the frequency increases, then lesser number of such accident would take place. Hence, 1 is an assumption.
For 2: From the statement “increase in the number of overcrowding “it can be concluded that, the trains in the Mumbai suburban run overcrowded. Hence, 2 is a conclusion.
For 3: In the statement, there is no reference to intension of the railway authority. Hence, 3 is out of context.
For 4: As the number of accidents is increasing in the past one year, it can be inferred that, the frequency of trains did not increase in accordance to the increase in the number of
commuters. Hence, 4 is an inference.
- In a TV show, a famous nutritionist said that among different items offered for breakfast, muesli has more nutritional value than regular cereals. He also said oatmeal is healthier than bread. But a recent commercial of a cereal company says cereals like cornflakes are richer in nutrition than plain muesli. The consumers are posting severe criticism on social media and on the company website about the misinformation in the advertisement.Which of the following conclusion can be drawn from the above paragraph?
1) The nutritionist has deliberately made that comment to generate negative sentiments against the cereal company
2) The cereal company had done the advertisement based on an outdated research and the misinformation was unintentional
3) The nutritionist has high credibility and people believe his words against that of the famous cereal company
4) The sales of cereals went down after the TV show.
5) Social media sites are increasingly becoming popular among customer as complaint portal.Answer – 3) The nutritionist has high credibility and people believe his words against that of the famous cereal company
Option (1) and (2) are assumptions and cannot be logically concluded from the passage. Option (4) is wrong as there is no mention regarding sales. Option (5) cannot be inferred as the statement also mention use of company website not just social media. We can only say that, as the customer having seen or heard the nutritionist’s opinion started questioning the ads and criticize the company. They believe the words of nutritionist. Hence, the nutritionist has very high credibility and great track record for being right. So we can only infer and conclude option (3).
- Statement: There is a general protest from the inhabitants of a certain area that the report submitted by a on riots in that area has been fabricated, based on prejudices and has present commission whole event.
I. Another inquiry commission should be sent for proper investigations.
II. The members of commission should be severely punished.
III. The next commission should consist of inhabitants of that area only.
1) If only I follows
2) If only II follows
3) If both I and II follow
4) If both II and III follow
5) If none of them followAnswer – 5) If none of them follow
I does not follow because it may cause a chain reaction. II is negative inference because without the proper investigation the punishment will not be the correct action, hence II does not follow. III also leads to biased report.
A shortage of bank branches and ATMs across India’s hinterland is holding back Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s financial inclusion efforts and risks angering rural voters ahead of elections next year. After taking office in 2014, Modi set an ambitious target to open a bank account for every household to ensure welfare funds flow directly to India’s poor, while improving access to credit and insurance programs. He pushed policies that helped bring 310 million people into the formal banking system in just four years, according to the World Bank.Based on the arguments stated below and the information stated above, which of the following arguments state the reason for the problem, ‘But many of India’s villages still lack bank branches or ATMs to help service new customers, while the pace of building new financial infrastructure has actually slowed’.
I. Because Modi’s government effectively forced poor citizens into the banking system by linking some welfare benefits to bank accounts, villagers have ended up stuck in long queues and struggling with ATMs that often run out of cash or break down.
II. With an election due next year, the mismatch between the government’s policies and the rural banking system is generating frustration among a key slice of India’s electorate.
III. The banking system struggled to keep up, while some gains proved temporary. Nearly half of the Indian bank accounts were inactive in 2017, meaning they weren’t used at all in the last 12 months.
1) None is strong
2) All except II and III are strong
3) All except I and II are strong
4) Only II is strong
5) All are strongAnswer – 1) None is strong
Argument (I) captures the essence of the failure of the policies but does not provide answer to the question stated. It states people stood in queues outside the banks, whereas in the question we are asking the reason for the lack of bank branches’. As, it is not relevant with the question asked, it can be rejected.
Argument (II) states the fact about ‘key slice of India’s electorate’ which is nowhere mentioned or can be derived from the given statement. Thus, it can be rejected.
Argument (III) is also inappropriate as it is opposite of the question asked. In the question we are focused on the reason for the shortage of bank branches and services, it states that the accounts are inactive and many of the branches have not been used since a long time. Thus, diverting the question asked, it can also be rejected as an answer choice.
World’s largest beer maker Heineken NV, the majority partner of United Breweries with Vijay Mallya, is understood to have sought legal opinion over its right to appoint a chairman at the Indian company. Heineken and some of its advisers believe that the shareholder agreement between Mallya and the beer giant has become null and void after India’s Enforcement Directorate attached his shares as part of its legal action against the liquor baron.Which among the following arguments support the above statement in the best possible manner?
I. UBL has stopped sharing confidential information with Mallya and has said that he is no longer privy to any strategic developments.
II. The board of UBL, India’s biggest beer company, had asked Mallya to either step down or appoint a nominee after the Securities and Exchange Board of India barred wilful defaulters from holding key board positions last year.
III. The company is functioning well and operations are in good shape but it is not good corporate governance to have an acting chairman for so long.
1) None is strong.
2) Only I and II are strong.
3) Only III is strong.
4) All except III and II are strong.
5) All are strong.Answer – 4) All except III and II are strong.
Argument (II) can be rejected as it explicitly states the fact that India barred willful defaulters from holding key positions last year, then why such a step is being taken at this point of time. It is thus, not relevant and can be rejected.
Argument (III) can be eliminated as answer choice as it states the fact that the company is functioning well and is in good shape. It is somewhat vague and moreover, not directed in the same sense as the given statement. The issue is with the new Chairman.
Argument (I) is the most appropriate assumption based on the facts stated. It sheds light on to the fact that since, Heineken is looking for a new Chairman and is breaking all links with Vijay Mallya, and as a result has stopped sharing confidential information, a move indicating the action of searching or looking for a new Chairman.
I. Milk supply in Maharashtra was badly hit after thousands of dairy farmers launched a protest on Monday, demanding better price and subsidy of Rs 5 per litre. Tankers supplying milk to major cities including Mumbai, Pune, Nagpur, Nashik and others were blocked early morning leading to sudden crisis.
II. The agriculture ministry had mooted a proposal asking railways to make milk available at railway stations and at the meeting, sources said representatives from Amul India suggested that the national transporter could provide stalls to dairy companies or cooperatives where they could sell their products.
I. Representatives of Amul India and food safety body FSSAI are willing to discuss issues and concerns of the dairy sector in the backdrop of the farmers agitation in Maharashtra that had led to severe shortage of milk in the state.
II. The farmers’ groups and Maharashtra Kisan Sabha, are demanding a GST waiver on butter and milk powder apart from the subsidy.
III. Railways is drawing up a plan to make milk available at railway stations across the country to promote its consumption.
1) Only conclusion 3 follows
2) Only conclusion 1 follows
3) Either conclusion 3 or 2 follows
4) Neither conclusion 1 nor 3 follows
5) Both conclusions 1 and 2 followAnswer – 1) Only conclusion 3 follows
From both the statements, we infer that Maharashtra has been badly affected because of the protest by farmers and as a result the agriculture ministry is planning to establish milk booths at railway stations.
On the basis of the conclusions mentioned, we can reject both first and second conclusion as they are vague. On the basis of the two statements, we cannot conclude any information regarding the FSSAI and the fact that farmers are demanding a GST waiver. We know that they are protesting but the reason is not explicitly mentioned. As we cannot conclude anything which is not mentioned thus, both first and second conclusions can be rejected.
Conclusion 3 is a very general conclusion that can be made on the basis of the information provided in the two statements, thus, we can mark it as a suitable conclusion.
- The Delhi High Court directed the Indian Air Force (IAF) to review and change its protocols dealing with issues of stress and substance abuse in the force, saying its systems have to be in tune with the law. The direction by a bench of justices S Muralidhar and Vinod Goel was issued as it disapproved of the manner in which the IAF had kept a 30-year-old corporal confined in a hospital’s psychiatric ward as he was an alcoholicWhich of the following can be logically inferred from the statement above?
1) Delhi High Court wants to make sure the IAF does not think that the Mental Health Act does not apply to it. There cannot be such a casual exercise that you can keep a person hospitalised for as long as you want.
2) The court was hearing a habeas corpus petition filed by the corporal’s family, claiming their son was being illegally confined at the Army Base Hospital.
3) The court asked the IAF to deposit in court one complete copy of the Corporal’s medical record by July 16 and listed the matter for further hearing on August 17
4) Central government standing Counsel Ripudaman Singh Bhardwaj, appearing for the IAF, said the air force acted with bona fide intention in the instant matter. However, the court refused to accept the argument.
5) None can be inferred.Answer – 2) The court was hearing a habeas corpus petition filed by the corporal’s family, claiming their son was being illegally confined at the Army Base Hospital.
The correct answer is option 2, i.e. The court was hearing a habeas corpus petition filed by the corporal’s father, claiming his son was being illegally confined at the Army Base Hospital.
Both options 3 and 4 can be rejected on first reading as they introduce an independent idea and we cannot deduce anything that is not mentioned thus, options 3 and 4 can be rejected. Option 1 can also be eliminated as we cannot predict the motive of the court with surety (mentioned as ‘Court wants to make sure’). Since, no such information is evident from the statement, we can reject it.
Option 2 makes a generalization that the court was hearing a petition filed by the corporal’s family (hint: last sentence of the given statement). It is a perfect deduction that can be made based on the given information as it does not introduces any new idea nor violates any piece of information stated.
- The Election Commission’s decision to deploy the Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail system for all the constituencies in the Gujarat Assembly elections is questionable. This will be the first time VVPAT will be used on a State-wide basis. A costly but useful complement to the Electronic Voting Machine, and the paper trail allows for an audit of the election results by the EC in a select and randomised number of constituencies.What could be the possible reason for introduction of VVPAT?
1) For improving technology
2) It is just an experiment
3) To encourage people to vote
4) To allow voters to verify their vote after registering it on the EVM
5) All of the aboveAnswer – 4) To allow voters to verify their vote after registering it on the EVM
VVPAT means Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail. This system will help people to see that the vote is been casted as per their desire and this will increase transparency. The word ‘verifiable’ tell us that option 4 is the correct option.
- Alarming level of pesticide and insecticide residue is found in fruits and vegetables sold in the market, causing public unrest. The reason is farmers being forced to use affordable chemical pesticides in large amount to protect the harvest. The pests, after sometime, get immune to chemicals and hence farmers are forced to use more harmful chemicals to exterminate them. The government is however is planning to ban the use of some harmful chemicals as its causing health issues thus breaking this vicious circle.Which of the following can be safely inferred from the passage?
1) The farmers are planning to protest against the banning of chemical pesticides
2) The government is going to ban all chemical insecticides and pesticides and their use in any form.
3) The farmers have been relying too much on the chemicals, long enough for the pests to evolve and develop resistance towards them.
4) Herbicides should be used by farmers to prevent such health hazards and protect the crop at same time.
5) None of the aboveAnswer – 2) The government is going to ban all chemical insecticides and pesticides and their use in any form.
The passages do not talk about anything that indicates an agitation from farmers. Hence we cannot assume (1). The government is planning on banning some of the harmful chemicals not all of them, hence (2) is wrong. Using herbicide is a course of action not an inference so (4) is also wrong. Now, it’s been stated that the pests are getting immune and hence the use of more chemicals. Only if the pests are subjected to chemicals for a long time they develop resistance. Thus we can infer the option (3) from the passage.
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