Modern History: From Lahore to London Or 1929 to 1932

Lahore Session, 1929:

1

  • On December 19, 1929, under the Presidentship of Jawaharlal Nehru, the INC at its Lahore session declared Poorna Swaraj as its ultimate goal.
  • On 31 December, 1929 the newly adopted tricolour flag was unfurled and 26 January, 1930 was fixed as the First Independence Day, which was to be celebrated every year.

Dandi march or salt satyagrah And Civil Disobidence:

2

  • Dandi march started on 12th march, 1930.
  • There were 80 people including Gandhiji at the beginning of march.
  • He travelled 240 miles in 24 days and reached at Dandi on 5th april, 1930.
  • The salt satyagraha movement was taken up by C. Rajagopalachari in Tamil Nadu and the Vaikon Satyagraha by K. Kalappan in Malabar.
  • He broke the salt law by making salt.
  • As Gandhi broke the salt law, civil disobedience started.

Round table conference:

3

There are three round table conference held to discuss constitutional reforms in India.

First round table Conference( November 1930 to January 1931)

  • There were fifty-seven political leaders from British India and sixteen delegates from the princely states.
  • Congress boycotted this meeting because of civil disobedience movement.
  • This conference was not successful because of the absence of Congress.

Second round table conference (1931)

  • Gandhiji represented the INC and went to London to meet the British PM Ramsay Macdonald.
  • In the conference Gandhi demanded immediate establishment of a full responsible government at the Centre as well as in the provinces with complete control over defense, external affairs and finance.
  • But due to opposition of Gandhiji by Muslim league and Hindu Mahasabha, this conference was also a failure.
  • Ambedkar has attended first two conferences with great enthusiasm, Ramsay McDonald has given separate electorate for Dalits. This was considered as communal awards.
  • Poona pact( September 1932): Gandhi went on fast in Yarwada jail, Pune against communal awards.There was a meeting held at jail between B.R.Ambedkar and Gandhi.Ambedkar agreed not to accept these awards,insteadGandhiji promised there will be a reservation for dalit in India. 

Third round table (December 1932)

 

  • This conference was also a failure because of less enthusiasm among participants and absence of congress.
  • However, Round table meetings reflected in Government of India act,1935.

 

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