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Modern History: Important personalities

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Mahatma Gandhi:

  • Inspirational Books : ‘civil disobedient’ written  by Thoreau, ‘Kingdom of God is within you’ by Tolstoy, ‘Unto this last’ by John Ruskin,  BhagwatGeeta, Kuran, Ramayana.
  • Spent 21 years in South Africa.
  • Returned to india on 9thjan 1915.
  • There were three Satyagraha started by Mahatama Gandhi Gandhi(truth + non-violence) in the beginning:
  1. Champaran satyagraha,1917: Farmers were forced to grow indigo. Gandhiji fought against this practice.
  2. Ahmadabad satyagraha,1917: Workers-mill owner dispute,where mill owner were paying less.
  3. Khedasatyagraha(gujrat),1918: There was a famine in kheda and Britishers were not in mood to scrap the tax.
  • Books by Gandhi: An Autobiography-The Story Of My Experiments With Truth, Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule, by M. K. Gandhi, key to health.


Subhash Chandra Bose:

  • Stood 4th in ICS exam in 1921.But due to Non Cooperation Movement, he didn’t join.
  • He became president of Congress at Haripura session in 1938.
  • He again won the election in 1939 but due to opposition from pro Gandhi group he resigned and formed new party “Forward group”.
  • He was put under house arrest in Bengal from where he ran away to Peshawar to Kabul to Russia to Berlin to Singapore. S.C.Bose took over “Azad Hind Fauj” in 1943 at Singapore.
  • He attacked on India with the help of Japanese and captured Andaman and Nicobar.Tiranga was hoisted firstly in “mowdak(bangladesh)”.
  • “INA trial” on the soldiers of Azad Hind Fauj . Charges on P.K Sahgal, Shah Nawaj Khan and G.S Dhillon were framed for open trial on red fort.Both muslim league and congress defended these soldiers.


Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan:

  • KhudaiKhidmatgar is a non-violent struggle against the British Empire started by him.
  • He was the leader of North-West Frontier Province of British India.
  • He is known as Frontier Gandhi of India