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Indian Constitution Part – I

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Indian Constitution : Articles and Parts

Indian Constitution when adopted by Constituent Assembly in 1949 had 395 articles and 22 parts.Additional articles and parts are inserted through various amendments. As of now Indian constitution contains  448 articles in 25 parts.There are 12 schedules in the Indian constitution.

The Constitution of India begins with a Preamble which specifies the feature of the Indian State and the objectives it is committed to secure.The constitution of India is the largest written constitution.Indian constitution makes the government system work.

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Indian Constitution


Part IThe union & Its TerritoryArticle 1 – 4
Part IICitizenshipArticle 5 – 11
Part IIIFundamental RightsArticle 12 – 35
Part IVDirective PrinciplesArticle 36 – 51
Part IVAFundamental DutiesArticle 51A
Part VThe UnionArticle 52 – 151
Part VIThe StatesArticle 152 – 237
Part VIIThe States In Part B of the First ScheduleRepealed By Constitution (7th Amendment) Act .1956
Part VIIIThe Union TerritoriesArticle 239 – 242
Part IXThe PanchayatsArticle 243 – 243O
Part IXAThe MunicipalitiesArticle 243 P – 243ZG
Part XThe Scheduled and Tribal AreasArticle 244 – 244A
Part XIRelations between the Union And The StatesArticle 245 – 263
Part XIIFinance,Property,Contracts and SuitsArticle 264 – 300A
Part XIIITrade , Commerce and Intercourse within the Territory Of IndiaArticle 301 – 307
Part XIVService Under the Union and the StatesArticle 308 – 323
Part XIVATribunalsArticle 323A –  323B
Part XVElectionsArticle 324 – 329(329A -Repealed)
Part XVISpecial Provisions Relating to Certain ClassesArticle 330 – 342
Part XVIIOfficial LanguageArticle 343 – 351
Part XVIIIEmergency provisionsArticle 352-360(359A-Repealed)
Part XIXMiscellaneousArticle 361 – 367 (362-Repealed)
Part XXAmendment of the ConstitutionArticle 368
Part XXITemporary Transitional and Special ProvisionsArticle 369 – 392(379-391 Repealed)
Part XXIIShort Title,Commencement,Authoritative Text in Hindi and RepealsArticle 393 – 395


Part I : The union & Its Territory ( Article 1- 4 )


Article Importance
1Name and territory of the Union
2Admission or establishment of new States
3 Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States
4Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters


 Part II :Citizenship  ( Article 5 – 11)

Article Importance
5Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution
6Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan
7Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan.
8Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India
9Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens.
10Continuance of the rights of citizenship.
11Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.

Part III : Fundamental Rights  ( Article 12 – 35 )

Article Importance


12 Definition.
13Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights

Right to Equality

14Equality before law.
15Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth
16Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
17 Abolition of Untouchability
18Abolition of titles

Right to Freedom

19 Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.
20Protection in respect of conviction for offences.
21 Protection of life and personal liberty.
21 A Right to education
22Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases

Right against Exploitation

23Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.
24 Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc

Right to Freedom of Religion

25Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.
26Freedom to manage religious affairs
27Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
28Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions.

Cultural and Educational Rights

29Protection of interests of minorities.
30Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions

Saving of Certain Laws

31ASaving of Laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc.
31B Validation of certain Acts and Regulations
31CSaving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles

Right to Constitutional Remedies

32Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part
33 Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application to Forces, etc
34 Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in force in any area
35Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part.

Part IV : Directive Principles  ( Article 36-51 )

Article Importance
37Application of the principles contained in this Part.
38State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people
39Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State.
39AEqual justice and free legal aid
40Organisation of village panchayats
41Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases
42Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.
43Living wage, etc., for workers.
43AParticipation of workers in management of industries.
44Uniform civil code for the citizens.
45Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
46 Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections
47Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health
48Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.
48A Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wildlife.
49 Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance.
50 Separation of judiciary from executive
51Promotion of international peace and security.

Part IVA  : Fundamental Duties (Article  51A )

Article Importance
51A Fundamental duties

Part V : The Union (Article 52 -151)

Article Importance
                                               Chapter : I   The Executive
The President and Vice-President
52The President of India
53Executive power of the Union.
54Election of President.
55Manner of election of President
56Term of office of President.
57Eligibility for re-election.
58 Qualifications for election as President.
59Conditions of President’s office.
60 Oath or affirmation by the President.
61Procedure for impeachment of the President.
62Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy
63 The Vice-President of India
64The Vice-President to be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States.
65The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of President
66Election of Vice-President
67Term of office of Vice-President
68Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of Vice-President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy
69Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President
70Discharge of President’s functions in other contingencies
71 Matters relating to, or connected with, the election of a President or Vice-President.
72 Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.
73Extent of executive power of the Union.
Council of Ministers
74Council of Ministers to aid and advise President.
75Other provisions as to Ministers.
The Attorney-General for India
76Attorney-General for India.
Conduct of Government Business
77Conduct of business of the Government of India.
78Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc
                                         Chapter II : Parliament
79Constitution of Parliament
80Composition of the Council of States
81Composition of the House of the People.
82Readjustment after each census
83Duration of Houses of Parliament.
84Qualification for membership of Parliament.
85Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution.
86Right of President to address and send messages to Houses
87Special address by the President
88Rights of Ministers and Attorney-General as respects Houses
Officers of Parliament
89The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States.
90 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the office of Deputy Chairman.
91Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Chairman.
92The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration
93The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People
94Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker.
95 Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Speaker
96 The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.
97Salaries and allowances of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman and the Speaker and Deputy Speaker
98Secretariat of Parliament
Conduct of Business
99Oath or affirmation by members
100 Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum.
Disqualifications of Members
101 Vacation of seats.
102 Disqualifications for membership.
103 Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members.
104 Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 99 or when not qualified or when disqualified.
Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members
105 Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereof.
106.Salaries and allowances of members
Legislative Procedure
107 Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.
108 Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases.
109 Special procedure in respect of Money Bills.
110 Definition of “Money Bills”
111 Assent to Bills.
Procedure in Financial Matters
112 Annual financial statement.
113 Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates.
114 Appropriation Bills.
115 Supplementary, additional or excess grants.
116 Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.
117 Special provisions as to financial Bills.
Procedure Generally
118 Rules of procedure
119 Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business.
120 Language to be used in Parliament.
121 Restriction on discussion in Parliament.
122 Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament.
Chapter III : Legislative Powers Of The President
123 Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament.
                                       Chapter IV : The Union Judiciary
124 Establishment and constitution of Supreme Court.
125 Salaries, etc., of Judges
126 Appointment of acting Chief Justice.
127 Appointment of ad hoc judges.
128 Attendance of retired Judges at sittings of the Supreme Court.
129.Supreme Court to be a court of record
130 Seat of Supreme Court
131Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court
132Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in certain cases
133.Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in regard to Civil matters
134 Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to criminal matters
134A Certificate for appeal to the Supreme Court.
135 Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court under existing law to be exercisable by the Supreme Court.
136 Special leave to appeal by the Supreme Court.
137 Review of judgments or orders by the Supreme Court.
138 Enlargement of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
139 Conferment on the Supreme Court of powers to issue certain writs.
139A Transfer of certain cases.
140 Ancillary powers of Supreme Court.
141 Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts.
142 Enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and orders as to discovery, etc.
143 Power of President to consult Supreme Court.
144 Civil and judicial authorities to act in aid of the Supreme Court.
144A Repealed
145 Rules of Court, etc.
146 Officers and servants and the expenses of the Supreme Court.
147 Interpretation
               Chapter V : Comptroller  And Auditor-General Of India
148 Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
149 Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General
150 Form of accounts of the Union and of the States
151 Audit reports.