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Gem Points For IBPS SO (Specialist Officer) – Part -11

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Hello Aspirants,as we all know only few days are left for IBPS SO exam.So, we are starting a new series ” Gem points ” in this regard.learn them by heart.Share and discuss in comment section.We will gear up level day by day starting from very basics.So,Put your Seatbelts on and join us in the journey to be a specialist officer.



1)internet is a vast collection of different networks.

2)To join the internet, the computer has to be connected to a internet service provider.

3)Internet access by transmitting digital data over the wires of a local telephone network is provided by digital subscriber line.

4)ISP exchanges internet traffic between their networks by internet exchange point.

5)IPv6 addressed have a size of 128 bits.

6)Internet works on packet switching.

7)DHCP protocol assigns IP address to the client connected in the internet.


1)Cryptography is a method of storing and transmitting data in a particular form so that only those for whom it is intended can read and process it.

2)In cryptography, cipher is algorithm for performing encryption and decryption.

3)In asymmetric key cryptography, the private key is kept by receiver.

4)Some algorithms that are used in asymmetric-key cryptography
~RSA algorithm
~diffie-hellman algorithm

5)In cryptography, the order of the letters in a message is rearranged by transpositional ciphers.

6)Data encryption standard (DES) is block cipher.

7)Cryptanalysis is used to find some insecurity in a cryptographic scheme.

8) Transport layer security (TSL) is a cryptographic protocol used to secure HTTP connection.

9)Voice privacy in GSM cellular telephone protocol is provided by A5/2 cipher.

10)ElGamal encryption system is asymmetric key encryption algorithm.

11)Cryptographic hash function takes an arbitrary block of data and returns fixed size bit string.

12)Secret Key Cryptography (SKC): Uses a single key for both encryption and decryption
Public Key Cryptography (PKC): Uses one key for encryption and another for decryption
Hash Functions: Uses a mathematical transformation to irreversibly “encrypt” information

13)There are of course a wide range of cryptographic algorithms in use. The following are amongst the most well known:
This is the ‘Data Encryption Standard’. This is a cipher that operates on 64-bit blocks of data, using a 56-bit key. It is a ‘private key’ system.

RSA is a public-key system designed by Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman.

A ‘hash algorithm’ is used for computing a condensed representation of a fixed length message/file. This is sometimes known as a ‘message digest’, or a ‘fingerprint’..

MD5 is a 128 bit message digest function. It was developed by Ron Rivest.

This is the Advanced Encryption Standard (using the Rijndael block cipher) approved by NIST.

SHA-1 is a hashing algorithm similar in structure to MD5, but producing a digest of 160 bits (20 bytes).Because of the large digest size, it is less likely that two different messages will have the same SHA-1 message digest. For this reason SHA-1 is recommended in preference to MD5.

HMAC is a hashing method that uses a key in conjunction with an algorithm such as MD5 or SHA-1. Thus one can refer to HMAC-MD5 and HMAC-SHA1.

Security In The Internet

1) IPSec is designed to provide the security at the network layer.

2)In tunnel mode IPsec protects the entire IP packet.

3)Network layer firewall works as a packet filter.

4)Network layer firewall has two sub-categories as stateful firewall and stateless firewall.

5)WPA2 is used for security in wi-fi.

6)An attempt to make a computer resource unavailable to its intended users is called denial-of-service attack.

7)Extensible authentication protocol is authentication framework frequently used in wireless networks.

8)Pretty good privacy (PGP) is used in email security.

9) PGP encrypts data by using a block cipher called international data encryption algorithm.

10) When a DNS server accepts and uses incorrect information from a host that has no authority giving that information, then it is called DNS spoofing