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Modern History: Montigo – Chlemsford Act, 1919, Rowlatt Act , Non Cooperation, Simon Commission

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Government of India act,1919 or Montigo-Chlemsford Act,1919:

  • Three Indians can become minister or executive
  • Separate electorate for Sikhs,christans.
  • Introduction of provincial diarchy which means whole India divided between centre and provinces(states),but the final power vested in centre.
Rowlatt Act:
  • In 1917 a Rowlatt committee was formed under Justice Rowlatt. This committee was formed to curb revolutionary activities. The Rowlatt Bill sought to curtail the liberty of the people.
  • The act was passed in the year 1919.
  • It provided for speedy trial of offences by a special court of 3 High court judges. There was to be no appeal.
  • Rowlatt act was repealed by British in 1922.

Non cooperation Movement:


  • After the Jalianwala case and the Rowlatt act, Mahatma Gandhi started non-cooperation movement. The resolution for this movement was passed in 1920 by a specially called session under the president ship of Lala Lajpat Rai.
  • Main objective of non-cooperation was to establish Indian institutes, Industries, women upliftment , Hindu and Muslim Unity along with boycotting British goods.
  • Ravindernath Tagore returned his title of knighthood to Britishers. Gandhi also inspired from him and returned Keshriya hind medal given to him by Britishers.
  • Mob of people at Chauri Chaura (near Gorakhpur) clashed with the police and burnt 22 policemen on 5th February,1922.
  • This compelled Gandhiji to withdraw the Non Cooperation Movement on 12th February, 1922.

Simon Commission:


  • In 1927, the British government appointed a Commission to look into the working of the Government of India Act, 1919.
  • Indian leaders opposed the Commission as there were no Indian in it and the Congress turned the boycott into a movement.
  • Lala Lajpat Rai was severely beaten in lathi charge and he succumbed to his injuries while doing protest.