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Kerala, Goa, Chandigarh emerge as Best Governed States and Union Territory : PAI 2020

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Kerala,-Goa-and-Chandigarh-best-governed-states-and-union-territoryKerala emerged as the Best Governed State in the Large States Category, Goa emerged as the Best Governed State in Small States Category, Chandigarh emerged as the Best Governed Union Territory based on Governance in the 5th edition of Public Affairs Index 2020 (PAI 2020) released by Public Affairs Centre (PAC) on October 30, 2020.

Overall PAI 2020 Index – Scores and Rankings

i.Large States:

RankLarge StatesPAI 2020 Index
2Tamil Nadu0.912
3Andhra Pradesh0.531

ii.Small States:

RankSmall StatesPAI 2020 Index
3Himachal Pradesh0.725

iii.Union Territory:

RankUnion TerritoryPAI 2020 Index


i.The rankings are based on a Composite Index.

ii.The performance is analysed in context of sustainable development defined by 3 pillarsEquity, Growth and Sustainability, 5 Themes, 13 Sustainable Development Goals, and 50 Indicators.

Least Performers:

i.Uttar Pradesh (-1.461), Odisha (-1.201) and Bihar (-1.158) finished at the bottom of the ranking of Large States.

ii.Manipur (-0.363), Delhi (-0.289) and Uttarakhand (-0.277) finished at the bottom of the ranking of Small States.

iii.Dadar and Nagar Haveli (-0.69), Jammu and Kashmir (-0.50) and Andaman & Nicobar (-0.30) were the least performers in the Union Territory Category.

Delta Analysis:

i.The report included Delta Analysis in which the results on state performance and ranking measured as the Delta value over the last five years from 2015- 16 to 2019-20 was covered by PAI 2020.

It is based on Equity, Growth and Sustainability.


i.In the Large States Category, in terms of Equity, Bihar followed by West Bengal, Odisha are the top performers, while Kerala, Punjab and Maharashtra feature at the bottom.

ii.In the Small states, Mizoram is the top performer, Goa is placed at the Bottom.


i.Among Large states Bihar, Assam and Odisha showed the highest improvement, while Kerala, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu feature at the bottom.

ii.Among small states, Mizoram, Meghalaya have the highest growth with Manipur at the bottom. Himachal ranks 2nd, but has least improvement in Delta value.


i.In terms of Sustainability, Odisha and Haryana show the highest improvement.

ii.Bihar, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Assam are placed at the bottom among the Large States.

iii.Among small states, Goa is the top performer followed by Delhi and Tripura, while Meghalaya and Mizoram feature at the bottom.

Key Findings:

i.Female Worker population ratio has a negative relationship with growth, meaning that Gender Disparities are increasing in high performing states.

ii.Agriculture distress is persistent in both high performing states and poor performing states.

iii.Rural indebtedness is increasing with a positive correlation between rural indebtedness and farmer suicides.

iv.Female labour force participation is a driving force in the case of high and middle performing states but not in the case of low performing states.

Recent Related News:

i.On January 29, 2020, As per the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) India, India’s youngest state Telangana has emerged as Number 1 state in the ‘Decent work and economic growth’ category with the score of 82 on Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) India index in 2019.

ii.On January 22, 2020, According to the ‘SKOCH State of Governance 2019’ report, Gujarat gained the top spot on the back of better performance in Health, Education, Power and e-Governance segments.

About Public Affairs Centre (PAC):
Chairman – K Kasturirangan
Location – Bengaluru, Karnataka