In Reasoning Part, another important Topic is **Inequality Problems**. It is a common topic for all competitive exams. We can expect 5 or 6 questions from Inequality. It is one of the topic, where you can get full marks very easily. I am going to explain a very simple method and i assure you that it’s possible to solve 5 questions in just two minutes.

In Inequality, at first they give some directions for the Problems. And in each problem, there will be statements followed by 4 conclusions. Our job is to find the conclusions which are true.

There are two types of models in Inequality.

1) Coded Inequality.

2) Direct Inequality.

In Coded Inequality, symbols like $, #, %, &, @ are used. In Direct Inequality, we use symbols like <, >, =, â‰¤, andÂ â‰¥ . Before learning shortcuts, lets understand what these symbols mean. Most of us learn these symbols in lower classes and they all are familiar ones.

**< – Less than**

**â‰¤ – Less than or Equal to**

**> – Greater thanÂ **

**â‰¥ – Greater than or Equal to**

**= – Equal to**

I hope everybody know this. Let’s go to Coded Inequality.

**DirectionsÂ **

**P $ Q means P is not smaller than Q**

**P @ Q means P is neither smaller than nor equal to Q**

**P # Q means P is neither greater than nor equal to Q**

**PÂ âˆ‚ Q means P is neither greater than nor smaller than Q**

**PÂ Â© Q means P is not greater than Q**

Now our first work is to find what does the symbol means indirectly?

Lets solve it one by one.

P is not smaller than Q. So P can be either equal to Q or Greater than Q. Symbol isÂ â‰¥.

P is neither smaller than nor equal to Q. So P is Greater than Q. Symbol is >.

P is neither greater than nor equal to Q. So P is lesser than Q. Symbol is <.

P is neither greater than nor smaller than Q. So P is equal to Q. Symbol is =.

P is not greater than Q. So P can be either equal to or lesser than Q. Symbol isÂ â‰¤.

Now form a small table before solving this kind of problems.

Now we decoded the symbols and we clearly know what is the meaning of each symbol. Make sure that you form a table as above. **The symbolsÂ >,Â â‰¥, and = should be in one row and the symbolsÂ <,Â â‰¤, and = should be in another row.** Don’t memorize the table. Usually Symbols change. You have to decode it correctly and form a table.

**Note: **

**———-> Forward Direction.Â **

**<———- Reverse Direction.**

**Â In Row 1, First Priority should go to >. NextÂ â‰¥. Last =. Similarly,**

**In Row 2, First Priority should go to <. NextÂ â‰¤. Last =.Â **

Just remember these lines. You will understand it while solving problems.

**Never make a mistake in forming this table. If you make a mistake then you loose all the 5 or 6 marks.**

We will try to solve some problems based on the above directions.

**Example 1**

Statements: NÂ âˆ‚ B, B $ W, W # H, HÂ Â© M

Conclusions: (1) M @ W. Â (2) Â H @ N. Â (3) WÂ âˆ‚ N.

**Step 1 – Make a single statement.Â **

NÂ âˆ‚ B $ W # HÂ Â© M

**Step 2 – Analyze the conclusions one by one. Always compare with the Modified Statement.Â **

1. M @ W

- If you draw a line from M to W, you will get a Reverse Line.
- Between M and W two symbols are there. One isÂ Â© and other is #. Â Both are in row 2. Highest Priority is #. Since the letters form a reverse line, we should note the symbol which is exactly above #. The symbol above to # is @. So M @ W is
**TRUE.Â**

2. H @ N

- If you draw a line from H to N, you will get a Reverse line.
- Between H and N, the symbols are #, $, andÂ âˆ‚.
- If you check these symbols with the table, # is in Row 2 and $ is in Row 1. So Conclusion 2 is
**FALSE.Â**

3. W @ N

- If you draw a line from W to N, you will get a Reverse line.
- Between W and N, the symbols are $ andÂ âˆ‚. Between $ andÂ âˆ‚, the higher priority goes to $.
- The conclusion formed a reverse line. So we should note the symbol which is opposite to $. That isÂ Â©. But given conclusion is W @ N. So it is
**FALSE**

**So Conclusion one alone Follows**

** Example 2**

Statements – RÂ Â© D, D $ J, J # M, M @ K

Conclusions – 1. K # J. Â 2. D @ M Â 3. R # M. Â 4. D @ K

Step 1 – Modify the statement.

**RÂ Â© D $ J # M @ K**

**Table**

Step – 2 – Analyze the conclusion one by one.

1. K # J

- Between K and J – Reverse Line. Symbols are – @ and #.
- In table @ and # are in different rows.
- Conclusion 1 –
**FALSE**

2. D @ M

- Between D and M – Forward Line. Symbols are $ and #.
- In table $ and # are in different rows.
- Conclusion 2 – False.

3. R # M

- Forward line. Symbols areÂ Â©, $, and #.
- $ and # are in different rows.
- Conclusion 3 – False.

4. D @ K

- Forward Line. Symbols are $, # and @.
- Symbols are in different rows.
- Conclusion 4 – False.

**NOTE: When more than one conclusion in false, check for merging concept. If the characters are same and both the statements are false, and while merging, if we get a meaningful symbol, then the statements can be merged. (To learn clearly about merging, check Syllogism Made Easy).Â **

In the above problem, all the characters of the statements are different. So we can not merge it. SoÂ **None is True.**

**Example 3**

Statements: M $ K, K @ N, NÂ Â© R, R # W

Conclusions: 1) W @ K Â 2) M $ R Â 3) K @ W Â 4) M @ N

Step 1:** M $ K @ NÂ Â© R # WÂ **

(You don’t need to draw table again and again. I am pasting it for your convenience.)

Analyzing Conclusions

1) W @ K – Reverse line. Symbols are #,Â Â©, and @. In table # and @ are in different Rows. False.

2) M $ R – Forward Line. Symbols are $, @,Â Â©. They are in different rows, False.

3) K @ W – Forward Line. Symbols are @,Â Â©, #.Â They are in different rows, False.

4) M @ N – Forward line. Symbols are $ and @. Highest priority is for @. So M @ N is True.

Only Conclusion 4 is True.

**Example 4**

Statement: H @ T, T # F, FÂ âˆ‚ E, EÂ Â© V.

Conclusions: 1) V $ F. Â 2) E @ T. Â 3) H @ V. Â 4) T # V

Modified Statement – **H @ T # FÂ âˆ‚ EÂ Â© V**

**Conclusions**

1) V $ F – Reverse Line – Symbols areÂ Â© andÂ âˆ‚. Both are in Row 2. Since it forms a reverse line, and highest priority is forÂ Â©, we should mark the symbol which is exactly opposite toÂ Â©. So the correct symbol is $. Conclusion 1 is True.

2) E @ T – Reverse Line. Symbols areÂ âˆ‚ and #. Both are in Row 2. High priority is #. Symbol opposite to # is @. So E @ T is True.

3) H @ V – Forward line. Symbols are in different rows. So False.

4) T # V – Forward line. Symbols are #,Â âˆ‚, and Â©. All are in Row 2. High Priority is for #. So T # V is True.

**Answer – Conclusion 1, 2, and 4 are True.**

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