Indian Polity: Constitutional Glossary

  • Secret ballot: A system of voting in which one’s choice of candidate is kept secret.
  • Rule of law: It is a doctrine that holds that no individual is above the law and every one regardless of their social status is equal before law.
  • Republic: A state in which power is held by the people and their elected representatives and which has an elected president as head of state rather than a monarch.
  • Quorum: The minimum number of members of an organization (e.g. Parliament) needed to conduct business.
  • Oligarchy: A form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elitesegment of society
  • First-Past-the-Post system: An electoral system in which the one who receives more votes than any other candidate gets elected
  • Ballot paper: A paper handed to each voter on election day to be marked, showing the names of the candidates (and sometimes the parties) who are standing for election.
  • Bicameral: Government with two house of legislature. Like in india we have loksabha and Rajya Sabha.
  • Unicameral: Government with one house of legislature. Like in Punjab there is only legislative assembly .so it is Unicameral.
  • Crossing the floor: An MP crossing the floor of Parliament to vote with his/her opposition.
  • Adjournment Sine Die: When House is suspended without fixing any time period.
  • Prorogation : End of the whole session of the house.
  • Question Hour: First hour of every sitting of the house. This hour is devoted to ask questions by the members of house.
  • Adjournment Motion: If House wanted to discuss very important topic then adjournment motion is moved to discuss that topic
  • Zero Hour: Immediately starts after the Question hour. It is used to raise matters without any prior notice.
  • Censure Motion: Moved by house to stop any minister for specific policies and actions.
  • No Confidence Motion: Moved against the entire council of minister in Lok Sabha. This is moved to asked govt to prove their majority.
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