According to the World Malaria Report 2020 released by the World Health Organization (WHO), India became the only high endemic country to report a decline of 17.6 % in 2019 compared to 2018. India reported the largest fall in Malaria cases in the WHO South-East Asia Region, it reported 5.6 Million cases in 2019 compared to 20 Million cases in 2000. Globally 229 Million malaria cases were reported in 2018 in 87 malaria endemic countries.
As per the ‘World Malaria Report 2020’, Meghalaya has topped the list in reducing malaria cases by 59% in India.
List of High Endemic States in India which recorded highest decline of Malaria cases in 2019 (compared to 2018):
|State||Percentage of Decline|
Highlights about the Report:
i.The Global estimate of malaria cases registered a decline in 2019 from 238 Million in 2000.
ii.29 Countries accounted for 95% of the Global Malaria cases.
iii.Countries such as Nigeria (51%), Congo (12%), Uganda (5%), Mozambique (4%) 7 Niger (3%) accounted for 51% of the globally reported cases.
iv.Timor-Leste reported 0 Malaria cases in 2018 & 2019 and since 2015 WHO European Region has also been free of malaria.
v.Nigeria, Congo, Tanzania, Mozambique, Niger & Burkina Faso accounted for 51% of Global malaria deaths in 2019.
11 Highest-Malaria Burden Countries:
11 highest-burden countries – Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Congo, Ghana, India, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Uganda and Tanzania accounted for 70% of Global estimated case burden and 71% of Global estimated deaths from Malaria.
Sri Lanka was certified malaria free in 2015.
i.The states of Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Meghalaya and Madhya Pradesh accounted for 45.7% of Malaria and 70.54 % of Falciparum Malaria cases in 2019.
ii.India achieved 83.34% reduction in malaria morbidity and 92% malaria mortality between the year 2000 and 2019, with this it achieved the Goal 6 of Millennium Development Goals (50-75% decrease between 2000 and 2019).
iii.India had accounted for about 86% of all malaria deaths in the WHO South-East Asia Region in 2019.
iv.The Annual Parasitic Incidence (API) (number of confirmed malaria cases per 1,000 population) has been reduced by 18.4% in 2019 compared to 2018, India has been sustaining an API of less than one since 2012.
Malaria Elimination Efforts in India:
i.In 2016, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare launched the National Framework for Malaria Elimination (NFME) in 2016 to eliminate Malaria.
ii.In 2017, the Union Health Ministry launched the National Strategic Plan for Malaria Elimination 2017-22, which proposed strategies to eliminate Malaria.
iii.The Provision of Microscopes, rapid diagnostics Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) is one of the major contributors to the big decline of Malaria in India. LLINs are nets which are treated in the factory with an insecticide into the net fabric.
iv.LLINs are being distributed in High Burden areas to reduce Endemicity of high endemic states.
WHO’s HBHI Initiative:
i.The High Burden to High Impact (HBHI) initiative was introduced by WHO in 11 high Malaria burden countries to tackle Malaria.
ii.In India it has been implemented in 4 states – West Bengal, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh & Madhya Pradesh in July, 2019.
It is caused by Plasmodium Parasite, and is mostly spread by Infected Female Anopheles mosquitoes.
Recent Related News:
i.25th April 2020 is observed as World Malaria Day to recognise the global efforts made to control malaria and to commemorate the Africa Malaria Day. It is one of the eight official global public health campaigns recognised by the WHO.
ii.On July 21, 2020, HIL, PSU under Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers supplied 20.60 Metric tonne of DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) 75 % Wettable powder (WP) to South Africa for their Malaria control program in three province adjoining Mozambique.
About World Health Organization (WHO):
Director General – Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus
Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland