History: Mughal Empire (1526 – 1857)

Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in “First Battle of Panipat” and established  “Mughal  Empire” .

MUGHAL KINGS                               ACHIEVEMENTS
1.      BABUR

 

Descendent of Temur .He took the title of “Ghazi” after defeating RanaSanga in Battle of Khanwa. Burried at Aram Bagh,Kabul
2.      HUMAYUNHe divided his empire for his brothers. Sher Shah Suri forced exile of 15 years(1540-55) on him . His wife name was HamidaBanu Begum. Akbar was born at Amarkot. Humayun Tomb is called as prototype of Tajmahal was bult by Haj Begum.
3.      AKBARAkbar was one of the greatest monarchs of India. He succeeded the throne after his father Humayun’s death.

In the second Battle of Panipat in1556, he defeated Hemu.

Ralph Fitch was the first Englishman to visit Akbar Court. He built “Ibadatkhana” to discuss teaching of various religion. He founded a religion Din –i – illahi. He abolished Jaziya.He also built Agra Fort and shifted his capital to FatehpurSikri.

4.      JAHANGIRWhen Akbar died, prince Salim succeeded with the title Jahangir (Conqueror of World) in 1605.

In 1611, Jahangir married Mehrunnisa who was known as NurJahan

He wrote his autobiography “Tuzuk – I – jahangiri”.

Captain Hawkin and Sir Thomas Roe visited his court.

5.      SHAHJAHANHe built TajMahal, Moti Masjid at Agra, Jama Masjid, Red Fort, Shalimar Bagh at Lahore.

The last years of Shah Jahan’s reign were clouded by a bitter war of succession among his four sons – DaraShikoh (crown prince), Shuja (governor of Bengal), Aurangazeb (governor of Deccan) andMuradBaksh (governor of Malwaand Gujarat). Towards the end of 1657, Shah

Jahan fell ill at Delhi for some time but later recovered. But the princes started fighting forthe Mughal throne.Aurangazeb emerged victorious in this struggle. He entered the Agra

6.      AURANGZEB

 

Aurangazeb was one of the ablest of the Mughal kings. He assumed the title Alamgir

He was called  as“Darwesh” or ZindaPir.

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