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Highlights of UN Climate Change Conference (COP 27) held at Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt – November 6 – 20, 2022 – PART I  

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Highlights of UN Climate Change Conference (UNFCCC COP 27) November 6 - 20 2022 at Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt - PART IThe 27th Conference of the Parties (COP 27) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was held from November 6 – 20, 2022 in Sharm El-Sheikh, Arab Republic of Egypt.

UNFCCC – COP 27, 2022

COP 27 relies on the outcomes of the UN Climate Change Conference in Glasgow (Scotland) (COP 26) to deliver action on crucial areas addressing climate emergencies.

  • The COP27 aims to renew international unity in order to carry out the historic Paris Agreement for people and the planet.
  • The Paris Agreement is a legally binding international treaty on climate change that was adopted by 196 countries at COP 21 in Paris (France) on December 12, 2015, and entered into force on November 4, 2016.

President of the COP27 – Sameh Shoukry, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Arab Republic of Egypt.

COP27 Presidency Launched Sharm-El-Sheikh Adaptation Agenda

The “Sharm-El-Sheikh Adaptation Agenda” was introduced at the COP27, which was held in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, in collaboration with the High-Level Champions and the Marrakech Partnership.

Key Points:

i.The Sharm-El-Sheikh Adaptation Agenda proposes 30 Adaptation Outcomes to improve resilience for 4 billion people living in the most climate vulnerable communities by 2030.

  • The presidency aimed to raise between USD 140 billion – USD 300 billion to achieve goals aimed at reducing the severe effects of climate change.

ii.India noted on behalf of Like-Minded Developing Countries (LMDCs) that the USD 100 billion per year pledged in 2009 is only small and is yet to be fulfilled.

  • Having failed to raise the 100 billion dollars per year by 2020, the developed countries have now promised to deliver this amount by 2023.

COP27: India, China On Track to Overachieve 2030 UN Climate Targets

According to an Energy Tracker Asia (ETA) analysis titled “COP27 Analysis: Assessing India and China’s Climate Targets,” the world’s two largest economies, India and China, are on track to exceed their 2030 UN climate targets.

  • They account for 2.7 billion people, about 20% of world GDP, and nearly a third of global emissions (China 24.23% and India 6.76%).

Measures & Achievement of India & China

i.Between 2016 – 2021, India’s installed Renewable Energy (RE) capacity increased at a rate of 19% annually.

ii.According to India’s draft national electricity plan, installed coal capacity will be reduced by 18 GW (gigawatts) by 2030.

iii.A record 156 GW of wind and solar energy will be installed in China in 2022.

iv.Electric vehicle (EV) sales in China are expected to double, possibly reaching 6 million vehicles.

COP27: Parties Agree to Introduce Loss & Damage Funding as Agenda at Climate Conference

During the COP27, Parties agreed to include Loss and Damage Funding as an agenda item at the climate conference for the first time since the adoption of the UN climate convention.

  • The European Union (EU) approved to this Loss and Damage (L&D) financial option for the most vulnerable countries through the CMA (Conference of the Parties serving as the conference of the Parties to the Paris Agreement) and under Article 8 of the pact.

MNRE and MoP Host International Conference on “Citizen-centric energy transition: Empowering citizens with Mission LiFE in Egypt

An International Conference on “Citizen-centric energy transition: Empowering citizens with Mission LiFE (Lifestyles for Environment)” was held at the India Pavilion at the COP-27 at Sharm-El-Sheikh in Egypt.

  • The conference was hosted by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) and the Ministry of Power (MoP), Government of India, in partnership with Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA), Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) and the Council on Energy, Environment and Water (CEEW).
  • The conference was Chaired by Mr Bhupinder Singh Bhalla, Secretary, MNRE.

Namibia Secures USD 544 Million in Climate Finance at COP27

At the COP27 summit, Namibia announced that it has secured climate funding totaling more than USD 544 million (~540 million Euros) from the Dutch government and the European Investment Bank.

Key Points:

i.The Dutch contribution comes from the infrastructure funding body ‘Invest International’, while the European Investment Bank facility will be used to build green hydrogen and renewable energy projects in Namibia.

ii.Namibia and the EU also signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on renewable hydrogen and rare raw materials.

ISA Releases USD 1 Trillion Roadmap for Scaling Solar Investment, Deployment

The International Solar Alliance (ISA) has announced the roadmap, “Our Solar Future: Roadmap to Mobilize $1 Trillion by 2030,” which was made at the COP27 held in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.

  • The goal of this roadmap is to secure the funding needed to scale up the deployment of solar power projects.

The Roadmap was produced by World Resources Institute (WRI), International Solar Alliance (ISA) and Bloomberg Philanthropies, in collaboration with CONCITO, the Investment Fund for Developing Countries, and the World Climate Foundation.

COP27: Initiative to Address Water Security, Climate Impacts Launched

Egypt’s COP27 Presidency, in collaboration with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), launched AWARe (Action on Water Adaptation or Resilience), an initiative that will support inclusive cooperation to solve water-related challenges and solutions across climate change adaptation.

  • AWARE was launched during the opening session of COP27’s Thematic Day for Water, with the goal of contributing to a successful outcome at the UN Conference on Water in 2023.

The initiative aims to provide transitional adaptation solutions for the planet and people in close collaboration with the African Union (AU) and the African Ministers’ Council on Water (AMCOW), among other partners.

UN Unveils Global ‘Early Warning’ System for Disasters at USD 3.1 Billion

The “Executive Action Plan of Early Warnings for All” was unveiled by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) at a roundtable discussion at the COP27 in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.

  • It is a five-year strategy to develop a global early warning system for expensive and dangerous extreme weather events that are aggravated by climate change.

The WMO estimates that the initial investment for providing early warning systems to all by 2027 will be around USD 3.1 billion, which is equal to a fairly cheap 50 cents (about Rs. 41) per person each year.

Union Environment Minister Bhupender Yadav Addressed at The Launch of the Mangrove Alliance for Climate (MAC) At COP 27, Egypt

Union Minister Bhupender Yadav, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) addressed at the launch of the Mangrove Alliance for Climate (MAC), which took place on the sidelines of COP 27 in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt.

Mangrove Alliance for Climate (MAC)

i.MAC is a joint initiative led by the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Indonesia to boost efforts to conserve and restore mangrove forests.

  • It intends to create awareness about the importance of mangroves as a “nature-based” climate change solution.

ii.India is one of the first countries to join the alliance, along with Australia, Japan, Spain, and Sri Lanka.

iii.MAC supports India’s target of increasing forest and tree cover by 2030 to provide an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent.

  • The intergovernmental coalition will work on a volunteer basis, and countries will set their own mangrove conservation deadlines.

India Submits Its Net Zero Strategy to UN

India submitted its ‘Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy’ (LT-LEDS) to the UNFCCC at COP27 held at Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt.

  • So far, 58 countries have submitted their LT-LEDs.

India’s strategy for low-carbon growth is based on four important factors:

  • A low historical contribution to global warming
  • The need for energy for development
  • A commitment to low-carbon growth in accordance with national conditions
  • The necessity to increase climate resilience

Key Terms with Respect to UNFCCC

i.Countries are obliged by the Paris Agreement to submit LT-LEDs to help reach the global objective of limiting temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius over pre-industrial levels.

ii.Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) are short-term action plans that countries must submit every 5 years to limit global temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius.

iii.Net Zero refers to achieving a balance between GHG released into the atmosphere and those taken.

iv.The Carbon Budget is the maximum amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that can be produced while still keeping global warming within 1.5 degrees Celsius compared to pre-industrial levels.

India Accelerating Transition Towards Renewable Energy: Report

The “Global Carbon Budget Report 2022,” released in conjunction with COP 27, states that at least three of the top four greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitters —China, the EU, and India—will switch to a clean energy economy more quickly than they have stated in their national plans or NDCs.

  • The top four CO2 emitters in 2021 were China (31%), the United States (US) (14%), the EU (8%), and India (7%).

Updated NDCs of India

India updated its list of “NDCs” in August 2022 and reaffirmed its commitment to achieving its 2030 targets. The targets include

  • Reaching a cumulative installed capacity of non-fossil fuel-based energy resources of roughly 50%.
  • A 45% reduction in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) emissions from 2005 levels.

Union Environment Minister Launches Moefcc – UNDP Compendium at COP27

The MoEFCC-UUNDP Compendium “Prayaas Se Prabhaav Tak: From Mindless Consumption to Mindful Utilization” was introduced by Union Minister Bhupender Yadav, MoEFCC, on the sidelines of COP27.

  • The compendium was unveiled at a COP 27 event at the India Pavilion titled “Understanding the Concept of LiFE: Lifestyle for Environment.”
  • The event was co-hosted by India and the United Nations (UN in India).

The compendium emphasises conventional best practices and important frameworks for behaviour modification from India.

COP27: India Underscores Need of Finance for Adaptation

During the session on “Long-Term Adaptation Strategy and Adaptation Readiness in India,” India insisted that adaptation be prioritised among development interventions.

  • The session was organised by The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), a research institute in New Delhi, Delhi.