Climate can be classified on the basis of temperature, precipitation, evaporation and their seasonal characteristics. The classification scheme of W. Koppen is the most popular system and universally accepted. A classification of the world climatic types is given ahead:
- Tropical Rain Forest/Equatorial Forest Type Extent:
- 5°N to 5°S; Amazon Basin, ZaireBasin, Malaysia, Indonesia.
- Average daily temperature: 25°C throughout the year
- Rainfall: Convectional, throughout the year. No dry season.
- Annual rainfall: 150 to 200 cm.
- Characteristics: Hot wet condition throughout the year favours rich vegetation.
- Tropical Grassland/Savanna Type Extent:
- 5°N to 15°N & 5°S to 15°S; Africa,East & central S. America, Transitional
- zone between Monsoon and desert climates of Australia.
- Monthly mean temperature: 32°C in summer and 20°C in winter.
- Annual rainfall: 50 to 100 cm.
- Characteristics:Distinct dry season in winter. Rainfall is in summer owing to convectional ascent of air. They have tropical grassland with scattered trees. Some examples are:
- Llanos: Colombian Highland.
- Campos: SE highland of Brazil,
- Granchaco: Argentina & Uruguay.
- Savanna: Australia and Africa.
- Tropical Monsoon Type
- Extent: South-east and East Asia, N. Australia, India, Myanmar, Thailand and South China.
- Annual rainfall may exceed 150 cm. along the coast
- Characteristics:Strongly developed dry season and the rainfall of the driest mouth is less than 6 cm. Great contrast in temperature between summer and winter.
- Tropical Deserts Extent:
- Western margin of the continent, e. g. , Colorado Desert, Mexican, Sahara & Kalahari Desert etc.
- Mid-Latitude/Temperate Deserts
- It extended to the Mongolia, Gobi, Patagonia,Parts of Soviet, Central CIS.
- Average annual temperature: above 18°C
- Charactereristic:Winter is colder because of its interior location. Some are intermountain deserts.
- Mild-Humid Climate with a Dry Winter/ China Type
- Extent:Along the eastern margin of the continent in sub-tropical belt; 25°-35° in both the hemispheres; Central China, S.E.-USA, South Bengal; Eastern Argentina, S.E.-Africa, S.E.-Australia, S-Brazil, S-Japan.
- Mid-Humid Climate with Dry Summer/ Mediterranean Type
- Extent: 30° to 45° L on western side of the continent in both hemispheres; Around the Mediterranean sea, in S. Europe, N. Africa,California coast, Central Chile etc.
- Snowy Forest Climate with moist Winter/ Taiga
- Extent: beyond 60° N in Europe, Asia and N. America.
- Annual rainfall: 30 to 40 cm; both in winter and summer; No dry season.
- Tundra Climate
- Extent: Arctic Ocean coast, Iceland, Greenland
- Mean temperature of the warmest month:0°C to 10°C
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