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English Questions: Vocabulary Set 326

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The Hindu : An economics fix

American economists William D. Nordhaus and Paul M. Romer were jointly awarded the 50th economics Nobel prize this week in recognition of their work on economic growth and its long-run sustainability. The Nobel committee noted that the duo’s work “brought us considerably closer to answering the important question of how we can achieve sustained and sustainable economic growth”. The committee’s praise is fitting as both economists devoted their careers to the study of the various “externalities” or “spillovers” that affect economic growth in a market economy. Mr. Nordhaus, for one, has been a pioneer in the movement towards quantifying the impact of economic growth on the climate and, in turn, the impact of climate change on economic growth. To correct this problem, he recommended imposing appropriate carbon taxes to curb pollution that was detrimental to growth in the long run. Mr. Romer, on the other hand, studied the importance of technology in achieving economic growth. He proposed the endogenous growth model where technological progress is seen as the outgrowth of businesses and other entities investing in research and development. At the same time, he recognised ways in which the market economy may undersupply technological innovations. Consequently, he recommended the use of subsidies, patents and other forms of government intervention to encourage economic growth through increased investment in technology. In essence, the Nobel committee’s decision is a recognition of economic research concerning market failure.

Of course, critics have highlighted flaws in the works of these two noted economists. For one, it may often be impossible to arrive at an objective measure of the carbon tax rate or the ideal amount of pollution to allow in a developing economy. It is equally troublesome when one needs to determine how much subsidy, or other forms of government support, should be allotted towards research and development. Even though mathematical models have been devised to address these problems, they are only as good as the data fed into them. Further, such decisions regarding the perfect carbon tax rate or the ideal subsidy allocation are likely to be determined by political considerations rather than simply pure economics. So the threat of government failure may have to be taken as seriously as the effects of market failure. These concerns lead to questions about the real-world impact of the policies supported by the pair. Nonetheless, many would argue that Mr. Nordhaus and Mr. Romer’s works are an improvement from the past in that they try to use the market mechanism itself to address its failures. The Nobel committee has done well to recognise important work on issues that are particularly relevant to the developing world.

1. Recognition ( Noun ) : मान्यता

Meaning : the action or process of recognizing or being recognized

Synonym : identification , recollection , acceptance

Antonym : denial , refusal , ignorance

Usage :

  • The procedure is gaining recognition as the latest advance in organ transplant surgery.
  • The Olympic Committee gave official recognition to the sport.

2. Sustainability (Noun ) : स्थिरता

Meaning : the ability to be maintained at a certain rate or level

Synonym : continuous , feasible

Antonym : untenable , unsuitable

Usage :

  • Wind turbines have a high level of sustainability because wind is an endless resource.
  • Most talk of energy and sustainability includes renewable resources like solar and wind power.

3. Praise ( Verb ) : प्रशंसा

Meaning : express warm approval or admiration of

Synonym : express , commend , compliment

Antonym : criticize , condemn

Usage :

  • Peter was conservative with his praise, so she felt honored.
  • The life which men praise and regard as successful is but one kind.

4. Devoted ( Adjective ) : भक्त

Meaning : very loving or loyal

Synonym : loyal , faithful , true

Antonym : unfaithful , indifferent

Usage :

  • It was no surprise both children were so devoted to Shyam.
  • No one could deny that John was a devoted husband and father.

5. Endogenous ( Adjective ) : अंतर्जात

Meaning : having an internal cause or origin

Synonym : internal , inside , private

Antonym : open , public , revealed

Usage :

  • Researchers have discovered that there are several endogenous pyrogens, each made up of small groups of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins.
  • Various stages in the development of the endogenous spores in a Clostridium – the small letters indicate the order.

6. Entities ( Noun ) : संस्थाओं

Meaning : a thing with distinct and independent existence

Synonym : organization , existence , being

Antonym : non-entity , non-existence

Usage :

  • We were competing entities, trying to influence someone.
  • Individuals are thought of as members of a family, state or religion, rather than as entities with a destiny and rights of their own.

7. Innovation (Noun ) : नवोन्मेष

Meaning : a new method, idea

Synonym : change , revolution , upheaval

Antonym : stagnation , habit , old

Usage : She is responsible for many innovations in her field.

8. Intervention ( Noun ) : हस्तक्षेप

Meaning : interference by a state in another’s affairs

Synonym : involvement , intercession

Antonym : avoid , disregard

Usage :

  • At first her intervention in the business of packing was received skeptically.
  • His personal intervention also alleviated the condition of the Quakers, much persecuted at this time.

9. Devised ( Verb ) : तैयार

Meaning : plan or invent by careful thought

Synonym : conceive , design , frame

Antonym : destroy , forget , ignore

Usage : The Louisiana deposits are worked by a process devised by Herman Frasch in 1891.

10. Mechanism ( Noun ) : तंत्र

Meaning : a natural or established process by which something takes place or is brought about

Synonym : procedure , process , system

Antonym : failure , sloth

Usage :

  • The camera’s shutter mechanism is broken.
  • Scientists are studying the body’s mechanisms for controlling weight.
  • There is no mechanism in place for enforcing the new law.