The United Nations (UN)’s International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer is annually observed across the globe on September 16 to bring attention to the ozone layer and the dangers of ozone depletion.
The day aims to raise awareness about the importance of preserving the ozone layer. This day is also known as “World Ozone Day” or “Global Ozone Day”.
- 16 September 2022 marks the observance of the 28th International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer.
The theme of International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer 2022 is “Montreal [email protected]: global cooperation protecting life on earth”.
- Note: 16 September 2022 marks the 35th anniversary of the Montreal Protocol.
i.On 19 December 1994, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) adopted a resolution A/RES/49/114 and proclaimed September 16 as International Day to Preserve the Ozone Layer.
ii.The first International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer was observed on 16th September 1995.
Why 16 September?
The governments of 46 countries across the globe signed the “Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer” or “Montreal Protocol” on 16 September 1987.
i.It is a special form of oxygen with the chemical formula O3.
ii.Most ozone resides high up in the atmosphere, between 10 and 40km above Earth’s surface.
- This region is called the stratosphere and it contains about 90% of all the ozone in the atmosphere.
Importance of Ozone:
i.The ozone layer, a fragile shield of gas, protects the Earth from the harmful portion of the rays of the sun, thus helping preserve life on the planet.
ii.It protects the human health and ecosystems by limiting the harmful ultraviolet radiation from reaching the Earth.
iii.The ozone layer is crucial because the sun’s UV (Ultra Violet) radiation is a known cause of cancer, cataracts, and other health problems.
Important convention related to Ozone layer protection:
Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer:
i.The Vienna Convention was adopted and signed by 28 countries, on 22 March 1985.
ii.Under the convention, the United Nations members recognized the fundamental importance of preventing damage to the stratospheric ozone layer.
i.The Protocol aims to protect the ozone layer by taking measures to control total global production and consumption of substances that deplete it.
ii.It is a multilateral environmental agreement that regulates the production and consumption of around 100 man-made chemicals which are referred to as ozone-depleting substances (ODS).
- This is the only UN treaty that has been ratified by all the 198 UN Member States.
iii.The Montreal Protocol phases down the consumption and production of the different ODS in a stepwise manner with different timetables for developed and developing countries.
On 16th September 2009, the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol became the first treaties in the history of the United Nations to achieve universal ratification.
On 15 October 2016 as a continuation of the global effort the Parties to the Montreal Protocol reached an agreement at their 28th Meeting of the Parties in Kigali, Rwanda to phase-down hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).
- The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol is legally binding and came into force from January 1, 2019.