Current Affairs PDF

International Day for Biological Diversity 2023 – May 22

AffairsCloud YouTube Channel - Click Here

AffairsCloud APP Click Here

International Day for Biological Diversity - May 22 2023United Nations (UN)’s International Day for Biological Diversity is annually observed across the globe on May 22 to raise awareness and promote the conservation of biological diversity.

  • The day highlights the importance of biodiversity and its crucial role in sustaining life on Earth.

The theme of the International Day for Biological Diversity 2023 observed on 22nd May 2023 is “From Agreement to Action: Build Back Biodiversity”.

  • The promotes the idea of an action plan agreed upon at a global level to implement all the measures that the agreement contemplates before 2030.


i. The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) adopted the resolution A/RES/49/119 on 30th January 1995 and proclaimed December 29 as the International Day for Biological Diversity.

ii. In 2001, the UNGA proclaimed the resolution A/RES/55/201 and proclaimed May 22 of every year as the International Day for Biological Diversity.

  • From 2002 onwards the International Day for Biological Diversity was observed on May 22.

Why May 22?

May 22 marks the date of the adoption of the text of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The text of the convention was adopted on 22nd May 1992 in Nairobi, Kenya.

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD):

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is an international legal instrument that has been ratified by 196 countries for the following:

  • The conservation of biological diversity
  • The sustainable use of the components of biological diversity
  • The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources

Biological Diversity:

i. Biological diversity is often understood in terms of the wide variety of plants, animals and microorganisms.

ii. It also includes the various ecosystems (lakes, forests, deserts, agricultural landscapes) that support a diversity of interactions among their inhabitants (people, plants, and animals), as well as the genetic variations that exist within each species itself, such as those between crop types and cattle breeds.

iii. Biodiversity faces unprecedented threats, such as habitat loss, climate change, pollution, and overexploitation.

iv. It has been proven that biodiversity loss could expand zoonoses (diseases transmitted from animals to humans). However, if biodiversity is preserved, it offers excellent tools to fight against pandemics like those caused by coronaviruses.

Key Points:

i. Current negative trends in biodiversity and ecosystems will undermine progress towards 80% of the assessed targets of the 8 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

ii. Human activities have significantly changed 3-quarters of the land-based environment and 66% of the marine environment.

iii. 1 million animal and plant species are now threatened with extinction.

Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework:

i. The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) was adopted during the 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 15) in December 2022 in Montreal, Canada.

  • This framework supports the achievement of the SDGs and builds on the Convention’s previous Strategic Plans, setting out an ambitious pathway to reach the global vision of a world living in harmony with nature by 2050.

ii. The Framework’s key elements are 23 targets for 2030 and 4 goals for 2050.

iii. The implementation of this framework will be guided and supported through a comprehensive package of decisions also adopted at COP 15.

About the Secretariat of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD):

Acting Executive Secretary- Dr David Cooper
Headquarters- Montreal, Canada.
Establishment- 29 December 1993

About the United Nations (UN):

Secretary-General- António Guterres
Headquarters- New York, USA
Establishment- 1945