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India G20 Summit, 9 September 2023 – 10 September 2023

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India G20 Summit, 9 September 2023 – 10 September 2023The two-day 18th G20 (Group of 20) Leaders’ Summit, under India’s presidency, happened in Bharat Mandapam International Exhibition and Convention Centre, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi from September 9th to 10th, 2023. This is the first ever G20 Summit being hosted by India.

  • The meeting was held under the theme of “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam” or “One Earth – One Family – One Future”. It is inspired from the Maha Upanishad, an old Sanskrit scripture.
  • The theme also spotlights LiFE (Lifestyle for Environment).

Note – The previous 17th G20 Heads of State and Government Summit took place on 15-16th November 2022, in Bali, Indonesia with theme for this was, “Recover Together, Recover Strong”.

Key Attendees:

The members of the G20 are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.

  • G20 Invitees: The Nations invited by India included delegates from these countries: Bangladesh, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Egypt, Mauritius, Oman, Singapore, Spain, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
  • G-20’s invited international organisations included UN (United Nations), IMF(International Monetary Fund), World Bank, WHO (World Health Organization), WTO (World Trade Organization), ILO(International Labour Organization), FSB (Financial Stability Board), OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development), AU (African Union), NEPAD (New Partnership for Africa’s Development) , ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), ADB (Asian Development Bank), ISA (International Seabed Authority), and CDRI (China Development Research Institute).

About G20:
Founded: 1999

  • The G20 or Group of 20 is an intergovernmental forum comprising 19 sovereign countries, the European Union (EU), and the African Union (AU).
  • During the 18th G20 Summit, Indian PM Narendra Modi announced that the African Union has been included as a member of the G20, making it the 21st member.

African Union becomes 21st member of G20 grouping
In the opening ceremony of 18th G20 Summit, on September 9th, Indian Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi made a historic declaration by announcing that the African Union had officially become a permanent member of the G20.

  • This significant inclusion means that the G20 has now transformed into the G21.

About African Union:
(i) Established: It was officially launched in 2002 as a successor to the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) which was founded in year 1963. 

(ii) Chairperson: Azali Assoumani (from Comoros)

(iii) Headquarters: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

History has been created with the adoption of the New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration: PM
Prime Minister Narendra Modi made a significant announcement about the unanimous adoption of the New Delhi declaration during the 18th G20 summit.

Key takeaways from Delhi Declaration:
(i) The document is of 37 pages & 83 paras. All the 83 paras of the declaration were passed unanimously with a 100 per cent consensus.

  • The declaration contained 112 outcomes. These includes 73 outcomes (lines of effort) and 39 annexed documents.

(ii) The New Delhi Leader’s Delhi declaration lays emphasis on key points such as sustainable development goals (SDGs), Gender equality, Countering terrorism and money laundering.

Click here to view Delhi Declaration Document

  • The declaration highlighted the significance of the Purposes and Principles outlined in the UN Charter.
  • It stressed that all nations should avoid using force or threats of force to gain territory or interfere with the territorial integrity, sovereignty, or political independence of other states and it states the usage of nuclear weapons as “inadmissible”.

(iv) The declaration outlines a vision for a sustainable future through the establishment of a green development pact.

  • The declaration also mentions of Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Mission LiFE.
  • G20 is endorsing the 2023 Financial Inclusion Action Plan (FIAP) with the aim of accelerating financial inclusion for individuals and micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs).

(v) The declaration mentions about member nation’s commitment to pursue reforms for better, bigger and more effective Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs). Member countries also expressed their commitment to improve access to digital services and digital public infrastructure.

India launches Global Biofuel Alliance

On September 9, 2023, at the G20 Summit held in New Delhi, Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi launched the Global Biofuel Alliance (GBA), a collective effort aimed at reducing the world’s dependency on petrol and diesel fuels.

  • This initiative represents a significant step in the direction of sustainable energy and economic strategies. Biofuels are considered an alternative and more environmentally friendly source of energy compared to traditional fossil fuels, as they can be derived from renewable resources like plant matter.

Note – India is the world’s third-largest consumer and importer of oil.

Key Takeaways:

(i) A total of 19 countries and 12 international organizations have so far agreed to join the alliance, including both G20 members and non-member countries.

  • India, Brazil, and the United States laid the foundation for the alliance. Together, these three countries account for a significant 85% of global ethanol production and are responsible for 81% of its consumption.

(ii) The GBA has been launched with nine initiating members–India, the USA (United States of America), Brazil, Argentina, Bangladesh, Italy, Mauritius, South Africa, UAE.

  • Canada and Singapore are observer countries.

About GBA:

The Global Biofuel Alliance (GBA) is an initiative by India as the G20 Chair.The GBA aims to accelerate the worldwide adoption of biofuels by promoting technological advancements, increasing the use of sustainable biofuels, setting globally recognized standards, identifying global best practices, and ensuring industry participation

  • Additionally, GBA will serve as a central repository of knowledge and a hub for expertise in the field.

About Biofuels:

  • Biofuels refers to the renewable fuels derived from biomass–from plants or agricultural, animal, domestic, and industrial biowaste.
  • Global Biofuel Production Targets: According to estimates by the International Energy Agency (IEA), the global production of biofuels would need to triple by 2030. This significant increase in biofuel production is seen as a crucial step in aligning the world’s energy systems with the goal of achieving net-zero emissions by 2050.
  • India’s Carbon Neutrality Commitment: India has set commitment to achieve carbon neutrality by 2070 means that India aims to reducing its net emissions to zero.
  • Biofuel Roadmap in India: India has also outlined an ambitious biofuel roadmap as part of its efforts to reduce carbon emissions and promote sustainable energy. One significant aspect of this roadmap is the government’s commitment to achieving a 20% ethanol blending rate in petrol by 2025-26, which is an acceleration of its earlier target of reaching this level by 2030.

Partnership for Global Infrastructure and Investment (PGII) & India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC)

On the sidelines of the G20 Summit in New Delhi, Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi and the President of USA, H.E. Mr. Joe Biden co-chaired a special event on Partnership for Global Infrastructure and Investment (PGII) and India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC).

  • A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between the Governments of India, USA, Saudi Arabia, the European Union, UAE, France, Germany, and Italy to establish the India – Middle East – Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC).
  • PGII is a developmental initiative aimed at narrowing the infrastructure gap in developing countries as well as help towards accelerating progress on SDGs globally.

About IMEC:

(i) The IMEC comprises of an Eastern Corridor connecting India to the Gulf region and a Northern Corridor connecting the Gulf region to Europe. It will include a railway and ship-rail transit network and road transport routes.

(ii) The new project is a part of the Partnership for Global Infrastructure Investment (PGII) – an initiative for funding infrastructure projects across the world and is seen as a counter to China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).

(iii) In 2022, during the G7 summit in Germany, the PGII was officially launched as a joint initiative to help fund infrastructure projects in developing countries through public and private investments.

  • Through this partnership, the G7 (Group of 7) aims to mobilize up to USD 600 billion by 2027 to narrow the infrastructure investment gap in partner countries.

G20 summitGender equality, women empowerment and women-led development

Under the chairmanship of Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India, the G20 New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration 2023 introduced a significant step forward for gender equality, women’s empowerment, and women-led development.

  • The idea is incorporated from the G20 Ministerial Conference on Women’s Empowerment, which was held in Gandhinagar from August 2-4, 2023.
  • The G20 New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration 2023 focuses on ‘Enhancing Economic and Social Empowerment’, ‘Bridging the Gender Digital Divide’, ‘Driving Gender Inclusive Climate Action’ and ‘Securing Women’s Food Security, Nutrition and Well-Being’.

Key Highlights:
(i) Building on Hon’ble Prime Minister, Narendra Modi’s Nari Shakti (the power of women) vision, India’s G20 Presidency has shifted the focus for the first time from women’s development to women-led development.

  • G20 EMPOWER and W20 meetings chaired by Dr. Sangita Reddy (Joint Managing Director- Apollo Hospitals Group) and Dr. Sandhya Purecha (Sangeet Natak Akademi awardee) are notable events with the support of Ministry of Women & Child Development(MWCD).
  • The inclusion of a commitment to “Gender Equality and Empowering All Women and Girls” in the G20 New Delhi Leaders Declaration 2023 reflects a significant step toward addressing gender disparities and promoting the empowerment of women and girls on a global scale.

(ii) Leaders of the G20 agreed to the creation of a Working Group on the empowerment of women to support the G20 Women’s Ministerial which will convene its first meeting during the Brazilian G21 Presidency.

India hands over G20 presidency to Brazil as summit concludes

The two days G20 Leaders’ Summit 2023 was concluded on 10th September,2023. Prime Minister Narendra Modi handed over the G20 Presidency to Lula da Silva, the President of Brazil, which will assume the presidency of the grouping from December 1,2023 this year.

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi called an end to the 18th G20 summit in New Delhi by passing on a ceremonial gavel to Brazil, which will take the bloc’s presidency.
  • India is currently holding the Presidency of the G20 from December 1, 2022, to November 30, 2023.
  • It was further proposed that a virtual session of the G20 will be conducted by the month of November,2023.
  • During the G20 Summit, Prime Minister Modi delivered closing remarks that resonated with a global audience, concluding with the Sanskrit phrase, “Swasti Astu Vishwasya!” which translates to a wish for hope and peace throughout the world.
  • Earlier in the day, he addressed the third session of the summit, presenting a visionary framework for responsible Human-Centric AI.

UK PM Rishi Sunak signs new strategic pact with Singapore in India

On the margins of G20 Leader’s summit, British Prime Minister Rishi Sunak forged new strategic partnership with Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong in Bharat Mandapam, New Delhi on September 9,2023.

  • Both the countries will work to conclude a “new and modern” bilateral investment treaty and it will be the first treaty which UK has negotiated since Brexit.
  • In addition to enhanced economic cooperation, the new U.K.-Singapore Strategic Partnership is expected to strengthen security cooperation, science and technology innovation, and research and development.

ADB commits concessional loan to India under Green Financing facility

(i)During the summit, Asian Development Bank (ADB) assured India to provide concessional loans under the Green Financing facility is significant in the context of India’s efforts to achieve its environmental and sustainable development goals.

  • Concessional Loans: Concessional loans typically offer favorable terms to borrowing countries, including lower interest rates and longer repayment periods.

(ii)During the bilateral meeting between ADB President Masasugu Asakawa met Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman, both discussed the outcome of G20 India Presidency and ADB contribution to G20 work streams under the Finance side as well as the Sherpa side.

  • Sherpas are high-level government officials who work behind the scenes to prepare for G20 summits. They are responsible for advancing their country’s priorities, coordinating negotiations, and ensuring that the agenda is effectively addressed.

G20: Nataraja Statue at Bharat Mandapam

The 18th G20 Summit featured the world’s tallest Nataraja statue, statue shows Lord Shiva as the lord of dance at the Bharat Mandapam which was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on July 26, 2023.
Key Takeaways for Bharat Manadapam:

(i) It is made of eight metals or ‘Astha dhatu’ which includes copper (87%), zinc (10%), lead (3%), and very small proportion of tin, silver, gold, mercury and iron.

(ii) It is Crafted by sculptors from Swamimalai in Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu, using the ‘lost-wax casting‘ method.
(iii) The 27-foot sculpture weighs about 20 tonnes.

(iv) The ‘Nataraja’ has been created in the style of Chola tradition, prevalent in 9th century south India and statue is made by Srikanda Sthapathy.

“Millet Didis” of Odisha at G20

Subasa Mohanta and Raimati Ghiuria, two women from Odisha, India, got the opportunity to share their experiences and success in millet cultivation at the G20 Summit held on September 9-10 in New Delhi, among world leaders. They were called as affectionately known as ‘Mandia Didi’ or ‘Millet Didi’.Both women came from tribal communities and credited the success of millet cultivation to the Millet Mission initiated by the Odisha government.

  • The mission has expanded to cover 177 blocks in 30 districts and has contributed to the resurgence of millet cultivation.

Significant Books related to G20

(i) India in the G20: Rule-taker to Rule-maker – Manjeet Kripalani

(ii) G20 @ 2023: The Roadmap to Indian Presidency – V. Srinivas

(iii) India & the G20: Legacy & Prospects for Multilateralism amidst a Poly Crisis – Patrick Bond and Sonal Raghuvanshi 

(iv) 20 Years of G20: From Global Cooperation to Building Consensus – Edited by Rajat Kathuria, ‎Prateek Kukreja

(v) Economics Of G20: A World Scientific Reference – John Whalley and Manmohan Agarwal

(vi) The G20 Development Agenda – Parthasarathi Shome