The Prime Minister (PM) of India Narendra Modi paid an official visit to Bali, Indonesia from November 14-16, 2022 to attend the 17th G20 (Group of twenty) Summit. He was invited by the President of Indonesia, Joko Widodo.
- The summit was held under the Indonesian Presidency on the theme of ‘Recover Together, Recover Stronger’.
- G20 Summit Agenda includes three working session’s viz. food and energy security; health; and digital transformation.
- This summit is the culmination of the G20 process that was carried out over the year through Ministerial Meetings, Working Groups, and Engagement Groups.
Key Highlights of Summit:
i.Indonesia’s President handed over the G20 presidency to India which will officially assume the G20 Presidency from December 1, 2022, and will focus on the theme of ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’ or ‘One Earth One Family One Future’ underlining equitable growth and shared future for all.
ii.The summit saw the launch of Indonesia Just Energy Transition Partnership (JETP) which is an agreement of Indonesia with G7 countries to decarbonize Indonesia’s coal-powered economy. It will be co-led by Japan and the United States (US).
- It aims to develop a comprehensive investment plan, the JETP Investment and Policy Plan, to achieve Indonesia’s decarbonisation goals.
- G7 includes Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the US. The European Union (EU) is a “non-enumerated member”.
iii.During the summit, the PM Narendra Modi stated that India is on track to achieve its target of generating 50% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2030.
iv.The 18th G20 summit 2023 will be held in New Delhi, Delhi on September 9-10, 2023.
Other Happenings on the sidelines of Summit:
G20 leaders visit to mangrove forests in Bali:
PM Narendra Modi along with other G-20 Leaders visited and planted Mangroves at the ‘Taman Hutan Raya Ngurah Rai’ Mangrove forests.
It should be noted that India has joined the Mangrove Alliance for Climate (MAC), a joint initiative of Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during the 27th Session of Conference of Parties (COP27) at Sharm el-Sheikh in Egypt.
i.MAC includes India, Sri Lanka, Australia, Japan, and Spain.
ii.It envisages to educate and spread global awareness on the role of mangroves in curbing global warming and its potential as a solution for climate change.
iii.India called for integration of mangroves conservation with the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) programs for carbon sequestering.
iv.India has 50 mangrove species spreading over 5000 sq km in India.
- Mangrove forests consist of trees and shrubs that live in intertidal water in coastal areas and host diverse marine life. They also support a rich food web, with molluscs and algae-filled, and provide a livelihood to local artisanal fishers.
G20 introduced Export Restrictions between mid-May-mid October 2022: WTO report
During the summit, a World Trade Organizations’ (WTO’s) Report on G20 Trade Measures was released which is WTO’s 28th Trade Monitoring report. As per it, G20 nations introduced export restrictions at an increased pace, particularly on food and fertilizer, between mid-May and mid-October 2022 due to economic uncertainty induced by the Covid-19 pandemic, the Ukraine war and the food security crisis.
- It reviews trade and trade-related measures implemented by G20 economies during the period from 16 May to 15 October 2022.
i.As of mid-October 2022, WTO members still had in place 52 export restrictions on food, feed and fertilizers, in addition to 27 export restrictions on products essential to combat Covid-19.
ii.Of these, 44% of the export restrictions on food, feed and fertilizers, and 63% of the pandemic-related export restrictions, were maintained by G20 economies.
iii.During the review period, G20 economies introduced 66 new trade-facilitating measures worth $ 451.8 billion, and 47 trade-restrictive measures on goods worth $ 160.1 billion. iv.
iv.The report urged the G20 countries, and all WTO members, to refrain from adopting new trade-restrictive measures as it will worsen the global economic outlook.
About G20 Trade Measures Report:
This report has been prepared since 2009 by WTO along with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), to monitor trade and investment measures implemented by G20 economies.
About World Trade Organization (WTO):
Director-General– Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala
Headquarters– Geneva, Switzerland
PM Narendra Modi’s Meeting on the sidelines of Summit:
On the sidelines of the Summit, PM hold the following bilateral meetings with his counterparts.
PM Narendra Modi meeting with UK’s PM; Launch of Young Professional Scheme
The Indian PM also met the newly appointed PM of the UK, Rishi Sunak. This was the first meeting between the two leaders. They had discussions on sectors of collaboration such as trade, mobility, defence and security.
- UK gives 3,000 visas for young professionals from India to work in the UK each year
- Both leaders announced the launch of the Young Professional Scheme allowing graduates aged between 18-30 to get a two-year visa to live, study and work in each other’s countries.
- For the UK, India is the first visa-national country to benefit from such a scheme.
PM Narendra Modi meeting with Singapore’s PM:
The Indian PM also met the Prime Minister of Singapore, Lee Hsien Loong where both leaders reiterated their commitment to further expand trade and investment between the two countries particularly in Fintech, renewable energy, skill development, health and pharmaceutical sectors.
- Indian side invited Singapore to invest in various sectors including Green economy, infrastructure, and digitalization.
- PM Narendra Modi invited him to visit India for the G-20 Summit in 2023.
PM Narendra Modi meeting with President of France
The Indian PM met President of France, Emmanuel Macron. They reviewed ongoing collaboration in diverse areas like defence, civil nuclear, trade and investment. They also welcomed the deepening of cooperation in new areas of economic engagement.
- Regional and global issues of mutual interest were also discussed.
PM Narendra Modi meeting with Chancellor of Germany
Narendra Modi met the Chancellor of Germany Olaf Scholz. They discussed the wide range of bilateral cooperation between both nations and agreed to deepen trade, investment ties and further increase cooperation in defence, migration and mobility, and infrastructure.
- They will also enhance cooperation and coordination in multilateral forums including G20 and the United Nations (UN).
PM Narendra Modi meeting with Italy PM:
The Indian PM met the PM of Italy Giorgia Meloni who is the first Woman PM of Italy. They discussed the deepening of bilateral cooperation in sectors including trade and investment, counter-terrorism, and people to people ties, and also exchanged views on regional and global issues of mutual interest.
Gifts given by PM:
PM Modi gifts following paintings and artworks at G20 Bali Summit which are as follows:
i.US: PM gifted Kangra miniature paintings, a form of Pahari paintings which portray ‘Shringar Rasa’. These are made by master painters from Himachal Pradesh (HP) using natural colours.
ii.UK: PM gifted Mata Ni Pachedi, a handmade textile of Gujarat meant to be an offering in the temple shrines which house the Mother Goddess.
iii.France, Germany and Singapore: PM gifted Agate bowl, a semi-precious stone formed of chalcedonic-silica. It is found in underground mines of Rajpipla and Ratanpur in riverbeds, and extracted to produce a variety of ornamental, and home decor objects.
- Gujarat is known for its agate craft.
iv.Italy: PM gifted Patan Patola Dupatta, a scarf consisting of complex motifs inspired from the ‘Rani ki Vav’, a stepwell in Patan, built in 11th century AD. Rani Ki Vav is an architectural marvel known for its precision, details and beautiful sculptural panels.
- The Dupatta is packed in a ‘Sadeli’ box, which is also a decorative piece.
v.Australia: PM gifted Pithora paintings from Chhota Udaipur. These painting are depiction of the cave paintings that tribals used to make reflecting their social, cultural and mythological life and beliefs.
- These paintings resemble with the Aboriginal dot painting from the indigenous communities of Australia.
vi.Spain: PM presented a Kanal Brass set, a straight brass trumpet, over a metre long, played in parts of Himalayan India. It is used on ceremonial occasions.
- It is manufactured in Mandi and Kullu districts of HP.
vii.Indonesia: PM gifted a Silver Bowl from Gujarat and a Kinnauri Shawl from HP.
- The Bowl is made of pure silver. This is a centuries old craft perfected by the traditional and highly skilled metalsmiths of Surat region.
- The shawl is made using the extra-weft technique of weaving. The designs show influence from Central Asia and Tibet.
It is a forum for international economic cooperation representing around 85% of the global GDP, over 75% of the global trade, and about two-thirds of the world population
- G20 members include 19 countries viz. Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the UK, the USA; and the European Union (EU).