English Questions: Vocabulary Set 327

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The Hindu : IL&FS crisis blew up when banks stopped funding

With banks stopping refinancing and major shareholders not agreeing on fresh equity infusion, IL&FS started facing a liquidity crunch leading to loan defaults, according to a former board member. As long as banks were refinancing, there was no asset-liability mismatch. However, such refinancing started drying up since 2015, which forced IL&FS to rely on short-term loans, which, in turn, led to widening of the asset-liability gap. The total debt of IL&FS is about ₹91,000 crore. Following rise in bad loans in the last few years and the banking regulator tightening norms on restructuring, banks became extremely cautious in lending, particularly for infrastructure projects. As the company’s loan default snowballed into a full blown crisis, the government intervened, and on Monday, it dismissed the board and reconstituted it with six members headed by Kotak Mahindra Bank’s MD & CEO Uday Kotak.

The government said the financial mismanagement of IL&FS was apparent from its rapid debt build up and misrepresentation of the true state of financial fragility, which was being reflected in an unprecedented ratings downgrade from ‘highly rated’ to a ‘default’ category. It added , Considering the capital base of the group, the leverage was very high, it added. ‘Once refinancing dried up, the only option was infusion of fresh liquidity. However, major shareholders were not in favour of bringing in new shareholders by selling stake and neither did they agree on a rights issue. Life Insurance Corporation is the largest shareholder in IL&FS with 25.34% stake, followed by Orix Corporation of Japan with 23.54% stake. The attempt to bring outside shareholders was approved by the board, but that did not happen because one of the shareholders did not agree to it. The proposals to raise funds through rights issue also did not meet with success,” the person said. As a result, the company started selling assets and reduced debt. But that was not sufficient to tide over the liquidity problem that was brewing. Till 2017-18, the auditors had declared the company on a standalone basis ‘profitable’ and it declared dividend. But in the current financial year, the amount of loan needed to be serviced shot up and defaults began. It was very clear that we are going to have default unless some money is raised.

1. Infusion ( Noun ) : डालना

Meaning : the introduction of a new element or quality into something

Synonym : impregnate, permeate, instill, enliven

Antonym : exclusion, extract

Usage
– The secret to a great Chicken Biryani is the infusion of perfect spices to the mix.
– He brought a tremendous infusion of hope to the people.

2. Norms ( Noun ) : मानदंड

Meaning : something that is usual, typical, or standard, set of rules

Synonym : standard, usual, convention

Antonym : exception, anomaly, oddity

Usage
– Seeking blessings from god before any task is a norm for many people.
– An ideal society moves away from patriarchal norms

3. Snowball ( verb ) : तेज़ी से बढ़ जाना

Meaning : increase rapidly in size, intensity, or importance

Synonym : escalate, heighten, multiply

Antonym : decrease, lessen, contract

Usage
– One tweet by a rash politician snowballed into a full blown controversy

4. Intervened ( verb ) : हस्तक्षेप करना

Meaning : take part in something so as to prevent or alter a result or course of events

Synonym : involve, intercede, interfere

Antonym : ignore, avoid

Usage
– The supreme court intervened to uphold supremacy of constitution
– india timely intervened to reduce political crisis in Maldives

5. Apparent ( adjective ) : स्पष्ट

Meaning : clearly visible or understood

Synonym : visible, obvious

Antonym : obscure, doubtful

Usage
– It is apparent from the government’s policies that they are trying too woo minorities
– America’s hidden agenda was apparent in their intervention in Iraq

6. Fragility ( noun ) : भंगुरता

Meaning : the condition of being weak and feeble

Synonym : delicacy, brittleness

Antonym : robustness

Usage
– The fragility of the parliamentary system is visible in Sri Lanka crisis
– The fragility of ceramics utensils demands special care

7. Unprecedented ( adjective ) : अभूतपूर्व

Meaning : never done or known before

Synonym : unparalleled, unequalled, unmatched

Antonym : normal, common

Usage :
– Unprecedented change has been the keynote of the electronic revolution
– In an unprecedented action, the army, on its own initiative, arrested seventeen civilians

8. Stake ( noun ) : दाँव

Meaning : a share or interest in something

Synonym : share, ownership

Antonym : defund

Usage
– many businessmen were forced to sell their stakes during global recession

9. Brewing ( verb ) : किण्वक

Meaning : to make something by mixing, fermentation especially beverages

Synonym : prepare, infuse

Antonym : abate, decline, die-down

Usage
– The sight of brewing tea in morning freshens up the mind
– But from the top, he could see the storm brewing

10. Dividend ( noun ) : लाभांश

Meaning : a sum of money paid regularly (typically annually) by a company to its shareholders out of its profits

Synonym : reward, profit, allowance

Antonym : liability, loss

Usage
– Skilled population pays a dividend in the longer run
– Individual efforts are dividends for overall growth of a society

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