some difficult words from editorials , which is important and very helpful for IBPS PO/CLERK/LIC AAO/RRB & SSC CGL EXAM and other exams !!!

The Hindu: Disruptive Mr. Trump

This week has seen rounds of tit-for-tat tariffs between the U.S. and China, set off by U.S. President Donald Trump levying import duties of 25% and 10% on American steel and aluminium imports, respectively, in early March. Mr. Trump, who has repeatedly used the U.S. trade deficit of over $500 billion as a barometer for the country’s lot in the international trade order, has railed against the U.S. being treated “unfairly” by its trading partners, often singling out China. While it is true that China produces approximately half the world’s steel and that the European Union, India and other countries have complained about international steel markets being flooded with Chinese steel, only 3% of U.S. steel is sourced from China. Interestingly, among those exempted from the tariffs are Canada and Mexico, top sources for U.S steel imports. Mr. Trump has linked the threat of tariffs to the North American Free Trade Agreement, a trade deal among the U.S., Canada and Mexico that Mr. Trump has pried open for renegotiation. Earlier this week China retaliated with tariffs that would impact $3 billion worth of American goods. This was followed by the U.S. proposing tariffs on more than $50 billion of Chinese goods, including in the aerospace, robotics and communication industries — the outcome of an investigation of several months into whether Chinese policies were placing unreasonable obligations on U.S. companies to transfer technology and hand over intellectual property while setting up shop in China. Beijing responded with a second round of proposed tariffs impacting a similar value of U.S. imports into China. Mr. Trump has now asked the U.S. Trade Representative to examine if an additional $100 billion worth of goods can be taxed.
Since the proposed tariffs have not kicked off, there may be room for negotiation. The economic ties between the countries are deep; China holds some $1.2 trillion in U.S. debt, and it is in everyone’s interest to avoid escalating matters. However, the larger cause for concern here is that Mr. Trump continues to undermine the World Trade Organisation and the international world trade order, now that it has served the West well and developing countries are in a significantly stronger position than when the WTO came into existence in 1995. Mr. Trump has pulled out of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, is pushing changes to NAFTA and has withdrawn from the Paris Agreement to combat climate change. While large-scale protectionism and unilateralism may please some of Mr. Trump’s constituents in the short run, undermining existing rules arbitrarily serves no nation, including the U.S., in the long run. In the current climate, it is therefore especially important for India to be a good steward for responsible globalisation.

1. Levying (verb) : लगाने

Meaning : impose (a tax, fee, or fine).

Synonyms : impose, charge, exact, demand, raise, collect, gather; tax; raremulct.

Antonyms : give, displace, exonerate, remove.

Usage : a tax of two per cent was levied on all cargoes.

2. Exempted (verb) : छूट प्राप्त

Meaning : free (a person or organization) from an obligation or liability imposed on others.

Synonyms :free from, not liable to, not subject to; exempted, spared, excepted, excused, absolved, released, discharged; immune.

Antonyms : accountable, answerable,liable, nonexempt,responsible.

Usage : they were exempted from paying the tax.

3. Obligations (noun) : कर्तव्य

Meaning : an act or course of action to which a person is morally or legally bound; a duty or commitment.

Synonyms : duty, commitment, responsibility, moral imperative; function, task, job, chore, assignment, commission, business, burden, charge, onus, liability, accountability, requirement, debt, engagement; datedoffice; archaicdevoir; literarytrust.

Antonyms : disbelief, asset, irresponsibility, misunderstanding, disagreement, unemployment.

Usage : I have an obligation to look after her.

4. Intellectual (adjective) : बौद्धिक

Meaning : relating to the intellect.

Synonyms : mental, cerebral, cognitive; rational, psychological, abstract, conceptual, theoretical, analytical, logical; academic; raremindly, phrenic, ratiocinative.

Antonyms : body, physical, foolish, ignorant.

Usage : he is a man of formidable intellectual capacity.

5. Kicked off (phrasal verb) : लात मारी

Meaning : (of a football match) be started or resumed by a player kicking the ball from the centre spot.

Usage : World Cup games will kick off in the afternoon.

6. Escalating (verb) : तना हुआ

Meaning: increase rapidly.

Synonyms : increase rapidly, soar, rocket, shoot up, mount, surge, spiral, grow rapidly, rise rapidly, climb, go up; informalbe jacked up, go through the ceiling, go through the roof, skyrocket, balloon.

Antonyms : conservative, moderate.

Usage : in three years’ time prices will have escalated.

7. Concern (verb) : चिंता

Meaning : relate to; be about.

Synonyms : be about, deal with, cover, treat, have to do with; discuss, tell of, go into, examine, scrutinize, study, review, analyse; relate to, be connected with, pertain to, appertain to; archaicregard.

Antonyms : entertainment, fun, pas time, unemployment, disinterest, unconcern.

Usage : the report concerns events which took place immediately after the end of the war.

8. Existence (noun) : अस्तित्व

Meaning : the fact or state of living or having objective reality.

Synonyms : alive, existing, extant, existent.

Antonyms : decline, decrease, diminish, drop, fall, halt, lessen, lower.

Usage : the organization has been in existence for fifteen years.

9. Protectionism (noun) : संरक्षणवाद

Meaning : the action of protecting, or the state of being protected.

Synonyms : defence, shielding, shelter, preservation, conservation, safe keeping, safeguarding, safety, security, sanctuary, refuge, lee, immunity, insurance, indemnity.

Antonyms : attack, harm, hurt, injury, threat.

Usage : physical fitness provides considerable protection against stress.

10. Arbitrarily (adverb) : मनमाने ढंग से

Meaning : on the basis of random choice or personal whim, rather than any reason or system.

Synonyms : arbitrarily, at short notice, expeditiously, forthwith, immediately, on the spot, peremptorily, promptly, readily, speedily, swiftly, without waste.

Antonyms : slowly.

Usage : recurrent infection is arbitrarily defined as three or more infections a year.

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