Welcome to Online English Section with explanation in AffairsCloud.com. Here we are providing some difficult words from editorials , which is important and very helpful for IBPS PO/CLERK/LIC AAO/RRB & SSC CGL EXAM and other exams !!!
What is illegal from the point of view of administrative law may not necessarily be an offence from a criminal court’s perspective. The Supreme Court declared in 2012 that the allocation of 2G spectrum by the Congress-led UPA government was illegal and an arbitrary exercise of power. It went on to cancel all 122 telecom licences allotted to companies in early 2008 during the tenure of A. Raja as Communications Minister. With the trial court’s en masse acquittal of all those arraigned by the Central Bureau of Investigation in the 2G spectrum allocation case, the claim that this was the biggest scam in India’s history lies in tatters. Every ground that the CBI had adduced to prove that Mr. Raja manipulated the first-come, first-served system to favour Swan Telecom and Unitech Wireless, among others, and helped them make a windfall profit by offloading their stakes, has been rejected by Special Judge O.P. Saini. The immediate fallout is that the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, to which Mr. Raja belongs, and its national ally, the Congress, will at last be in a position to shake off the perception that they were irredeemably beset by corruption. The Congress, in particular, is now in a position to reiterate that the spectrum allocation resulted in ‘zero loss’; also, that its rule between 2004 and 2014 was not as scam-tainted as it was generally made out, a perception that has impacted its electoral performance since. Attention will now turn to Vinod Rai, whose sensational report as Comptroller and Auditor General, pegging the loss as a result of not auctioning spectrum at ₹1.76 lakh crore, contributed to the perception that a huge scam had taken place.
Many had argued that the figure was only notional. Mr. Raja said that not revising the entry fee and not auctioning spectrum ensured cheaper telephony, increased tele-density and contributed to the sector’s overall development. He has been undoubtedly vindicated, but there is a lesson for everyone in the long 2G saga: public perception and audit reports cannot be the sole basis for criminal trials; investigating agencies must carefully sift the available material before deciding to prosecute. Eliminating graft from public life is not only about making allegations stick during election time, but also about diligent investigation and efficient prosecution. The CBI’s image has taken a beating, with the court calling it out for its waning enthusiasm in pursuing the case. There is a cloud over the present government’s commitment to fighting corruption. It may yet have a chance to redeem itself, as the CBI has said it will appeal the verdict. An appeal is in order given the sweeping dismissal of the CBI’s contentions, so sweeping that it dismisses, arguably a tad too breezily, what the prosecution said were suspicious quid pro quo transactions. It is said that the folklore about corruption is bigger than the actual incidence of corruption. Could this be true of the 2G ‘scam’ as well?
1. Offence (noun) – अपमान
Meaning –a breach of a law or rule; an illegal act.
Synonyms – crime, illegal/unlawful act, misdemeanour, breach/violation/infraction of the law, felony, wrongdoing, wrong, act of misconduct, misdeed, delinquency, peccadillo, sin, transgression, infringement, act of dereliction, shortcoming, fault, lapse; malfeasance; archaictrespass; raremalefaction.
Antonyms – defense, defence, defending team.
Usage –he denied having committed any offence.
2. Arbitrary (adjective) – मनमाना
Meaning –based on random choice or personal whim, rather than any reason or system.
Synonyms – capricious, whimsical, random, chance, erratic, unpredictable, inconsistent, wild, hit-or-miss, haphazard, casual; unmotivated, motiveless, unreasoned, unreasonable, unsupported, irrational, illogical, groundless, unjustifiable, unjustified, wanton; discretionary, personal, subjective; rarediscretional.
Antonyms –circumspect, rational, reasonable, reasoned, supported.
Usage – an arbitrary decision from the top.
3. Acquittal(adjective) – दोषमुक्ति
Meaning –a judgement or verdict that a person is not guilty of the crime with which they have been charged.
Synonyms –absolution, clearing, exoneration, exculpation, declaration of innocence; discharge, release, freeing, liberation, deliverance; vindication; informallet-off, letting off.
Antonyms –blame, censure, conviction, denunciation, doom, sentence.
Usage –we make every effort to secure the acquittal of our clients.
4. Arraigned (verb) – आक्षेप
Meaning –call or bring (someone) before a court to answer a criminal charge.
Synonyms –arraigned, charged with, held for questioning, implicated, incriminated, indicted, liable, subject to accusation, under indictment, under suspicion.
Antonynms –acquitted, clear, discharged.
Usage –her sister was arraigned on charges of attempted murder.
5. Adduce (verb) – प्रस्तुत करना
Meaning –cite as evidence..
Synonyms – cite, illustrate, point out, prove, show.
Antonyms –hesitate, stop, withdraw.
Usage –a number of factors are adduced to explain the situation.
6. Windfall (noun) – अप्रत्याशित
Meaning – a large amount of money that is won or received unexpectedly.
Synonyms – bonanza, bonus, find, fortune, gift from the gods, godsend, gravy, lucky find, money from heaven, pennies from heaven, stroke of luck.
Antonyms –bad fortune, bad luck, curse, disadvantage.
Usage – members are to get an average £520 cash windfall for voting ‘yes’ to the merger.
7. Irredeemable (adjective) – अपूरणीय
Meaning –not able to be saved, improved, or corrected..
Synonyms –– bad, beyond recall, cynical, dejected, demoralized, despairing, desperate, despondent, disconsolate, discouraging, downhearted, fatal, forlorn, gone, goner, helpless, ill-fated, impossible, impracticable, in despair, incurable, irredeemable, irreparable, irreversible.
Antonyms –auspicious, bright, encouraging, expectant, hopeful, optimistic, promising, propitious, rosy .
Usage –so many irredeemable mistakes have been made.
8. Sensational (adjective) – संवेदनात्मक
Meaning –causing great public interest and excitement…
Synonyms – amazing, startling, astonishing, staggering, shocking, appalling, horrifying, scandalous; stirring, exciting, thrilling, electrifying; fascinating, interesting, notable, noteworthy, important, significant, remarkable, momentous, historic, newsworthy; informal buzz worthy
Antonyms – ordinary, run-of-the-mill, unexceptional, usual..
Usage –a sensational murder trial.
9. Vindicated (verb) – पुष्टि
Meaning –clear (someone) of blame or suspicion.
Synonyms – – uphold, maintain.
Antonyms –exposed, unguarded, unprotected, unsafe, vulnerable.
Usage –hospital staff were vindicated by the inquest verdict.
10. Folklore (noun) – लोक-साहित्य
Meaning – the traditional beliefs, customs, and stories of a community, passed through the generations by word of mouth.
Synonyms – mythology, lore, oral history, tradition, folk tradition; legends, fables, myths, folk tales, folk stories, old wives’ tales; technicalmythus, mythos.
Usage –he studied the local customs and folklore.