Welcome to Online English Section with explanation in AffairsCloud.com. Here we are creating question sample in Fill in the blanks, which is BASED ON Bank EXAMS 2018 !!!
Fill in the blanks
Directions (Q.1-10): In each of the following questions a short passage is given with one of the lines in the passage missing and represented by a blank. Select the best out of the five answer choices given, to make the passage complete and coherent (coherent means logically complete and sound).
- It is scandalous that ghostwritten papers that mimic well-researched science manage to get published in reputed medical journals. The effect is to mislead doctors by playing down the harmful effects of the drug and encouraging them to prescribe it to more patients. _________________. Since the number of newly discovered molecules is very small, pharmaceutical companies sometimes feel obliged to make the most out of commercially available drugs. This is believed to be a major factor behind medical ghostwriting.
1. Unlike in the case of data manipulation and science fraud, universities have not shown much inclination to crack the whip.
2. They have also achieved a measure of success in obliging authors to disclose any conflict of interest.
3. Conscientious journal editors and publishers have a big responsibility to ensure that unscrupulous sections of the pharmaceutical industry do not use their journals.
4. A group of medical journal editors succeeded in bringing about more transparency and accountability in the way clinical trials are conducted
5. What is shocking is the willingness of researchers of repute to lend their names to the ghostwritten papers.Answer : 5)
Option 5 is correct. It states about researchers which can be seen in the context
- The building sector has a big responsibility and role to play in combating global warming. In 2007, a United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) report estimated that this sector, when it adopts suitable measures, can help reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 30 per cent to 40 per cent. In absolute terms, this amounts to a reduction of two billion tonnes of CO2 emissions during the Kyoto Protocol period. The UNEP has recently come with a tool kit to implement Responsible Property Investment (RPI), an innovative way to finance sustainable practices. The RPI urges corporate investors and fund and asset managers to factor in positive social and environmental attributes of a project in their decision to buy a property or finance construction. Financial performance alone is not adequate to assess a property. ________________________
1. Genuine changes in the way the multi-trillion-dollar global property industry invests will have a far-reaching environmental impact.
2. Existing regulatory practices and incentives, such as Certified Emission Reduction, focus on builders and the supply side of sustainable buildings, leaving out the buyers
3. Against this background, what is clear is that the Indian property sector can do much more for the environment.
4. Right now, it mostly responds to mandatory codes, which are weak and slow in coming.
5. The delay in implementing the Energy Conservation Building Code is a case in point.Answer : 2)
Option 2 is correct. In the end regulatory practises needs to be ended with.
- ____________________. The Atomic Energy Commission was formed and treated with reverence. The difference this has made to the power situation in the country is not clear. Independent experts at the Indian Statistical Institute point out that nuclear power is costly. But we also know that the alternative — of burning coal — is not just polluting but contributes to global warming and climate change, with catastrophic consequences. However, we need to rely neither on nuclear power or fossil fuel, for we have abundant sunlight in India and some wind power. And the cost of generating solar power is reducing rapidly due to advances in storage technology.
1. For while civilisational norms may place restrictions on individual action, democratic norms singularly protect the individual’s inalienable right to life and liberty and place upon the state the responsibility of advancing it.
2. The governance imperative in a democracy does not end with promoting the ease of doing business.
3. The pursuit of high science by the Government of India had started quite early after 1947 when it embarked on a programme of harnessing nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.
4. India was then emerging from colonial rule, which had involved not only economic exploitation but also a disdain for the Indian way of life.
5. Today, after 71 years we have the hindsight to see this, and we should take advantage of it. India’s science and technology policy should now be re-oriented to improve the lives of Indians.Answer : 3)
Option 3 is correct. This sentence is an apt for the start of nuclear energy.
- By the end of the Civil War, the South was in a state of political upheaval, social disorder, and economic decay. _______________. Inflation became so severe that by the end of the war a loaf of bread cost several hundred Confederate dollars. Thousands of southerners starved to death, and many who did not starve lost everything they owned: clothing, homes, land, and slaves. As a result, by 1865, policymakers in Washington had the nearly impossible task of southern Reconstruction.
1. The Union’s tactics of total war destroyed southern crops, plantations, and entire cities, and hundreds of thousands of emancipated slaves rushed to Union lines as their masters fled the oncoming Union army.
2. The Radical Republicans also believed that southern society would have to be completely transformed to ensure that the South would not try to secede again.
3. The Radicals therefore attempted to reshape the South by enfranchising blacks, putting Unionist and pro-Republican governments in southern legislatures, and punishing southern planter elites, whom many politicians held responsible for the Civil War.
4. Ultimately, the most important part of Reconstruction was the push to secure rights for former slaves.
5. Radical Republicans, aware that newly freed slaves would face insidious racism, passed a series of progressive laws and amendments in Congress that protected blacks’ rights under federal and constitutional law.Answer : 1)
Option 1 is correct. This sentences states about the southern crops.
- _________________________. Since 2006, there have been 495 cases of suicides and 25 cases of “fragging,” or killing of fellow-soldiers, in the Army alone. Several measures have been announced in recent years to address the crisis, but clearly, more are needed. Tellingly, a report prepared by the Defence Institute of Psychological Research, while putting the incidents in the context of the strain and stress of prolonged and repeated deployment in situations of civil conflict, often in counter-insurgency roles, has also emphasised the need for sensitising the intermediate-level leadership to the problems of the jawans and for improving interpersonal relations between officers and men.
1. Providing adequate rest and recuperation opportunities, rationalising the grant of leave, improving manpower management, and enhancing awareness among troops regarding stress management are some of the other suggestions this internal study has come up with.
2. The recommendations call for some rethinking on occupational issues and internal dynamics, and a qualitative change in person-management methods across the ranks.
3. The military leadership should move with greater seriousness to find ways of mitigating the stress levels of soldiers.
4. The number of military personnel across different branches and ranks taking their own lives has spiked in India, raising questions of esprit de corps.
5. The services have in recent times made available mental health-related assistance and counselling facilities.Answer : 4)
Option 4 is correct. The topic is with respect to military forces.
- World War II divided Korea into a Communist, northern half and an American-occupied southern half, divided at the 38th parallel. The Korean War (1950-1953) began when the North Korean Communist army crossed the 38th Parallel and invaded non-Communist South Korea. ______________________. General Douglas MacArthur, who had been overseeing the post-WWII occupation of Japan, commanded the US forces which now began to hold off the North Koreans at Pusan, at the southernmost tip of Korea. Although Korea was not strategically essential to the United States, the political environment at this stage of the Cold War was such that policymakers did not want to appear “soft on Communism.”
1. Having made this landing, MacArthur crushed the North Korean army in a pincer movement and recaptured Seoul, the capital of South Korea.
2. Only after the appointment of Lt. General Matthew Ridgway as commander of ground forces did American morale improve and the initiative begin to swing against the Chinese Communists.
3. As Kim Il-sung’s North Korean army, armed with Soviet tanks, quickly overran South Korea, the United States came to South Korea’s aid.
4. Instead of being satisfied with his rapid reconquest of South Korea, MacArthur crossed the 38TH Parallel and pursued the North Korean army all the way to the northernmost provinces of North Korea.
5. Afraid that the US was interested in taking North Korea as a base for operations against Manchuria, the People’s Republic of China secretly sent an army across the Yalu River.Answer : 3)
Option 3 is correct. The sentence states about the relations between the countries.
- It is four months since the gravity of the swine flu outbreak that started in Mexico became evident to the international community. India was not spared from the three flu pandemics of the last century. ________________________. Yet for all the pandemic preparation that is supposed to have been completed, it is the Union Health Ministry’s lack of planning that has been on display in recent days. Even before the first swine death occurred in India recently, a large number of countries across the world were coping with massive outbreaks of pandemic flu. But the central government, which must provide leadership for the nation, appears to have drawn few lessons from the experience of those countries.
1. It ought to have been clear from the start of this one that the country must be prepared to face a new contingency.
2. It has utterly failed to prepare the public for a rapid spread of the flu virus within the country.
3. A flu pandemic occurs when a virus arises to which the vast majority of people in the world have no natural immunity.
4. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that about two billion people worldwide — about 30 percent of the global population — could be infected by the time this pandemic ends.
5. But catching the swine flu is very far from being a grave illness, let alone a death sentence.Answer : 1)
Option 1 is correct. It is a neutral sentence which makes a connection with the passage.
- It may soon be possible to classify a majority of the more than 400,000 species of land plants in the world on the basis of genetic variability. The Plant Working Group of the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) recently reached a consensus on the portions of the genes that would be used as the plant DNA barcode. This came after four years of work by 52 scientists from 10 countries. DNA barcoding, a technique proposed by the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, uses a short genetic sequence from a standard part of the genome to quickly identify different plant species. ____________________________. Bar-coding has been used since 2003 to identify animal species, and a barcode library of nearly 60,000 animal species has been created. But there was no agreement on which regions of the genome should be used for barcoding plants.
1. The gene used in the animal bar-code has the power to correctly identify over 95 per cent of the species.
2. To become usable the chosen genetic sequences of the bar-code must vary with species but must also be conserved enough in plants for identifying most of them.
3. But the plant bar-code is some way short of the ideal.
4. While it can group the plants to the correct genus, it can, on average, discriminate only 72 per cent of all plant species.
5. Though identifying closely related species is problematic in many plants and fungi, it should be less of an issue when used within a restricted region or habitat.Answer : 2)
Option 2 is correct. It states about the genetic sequences of bar code which goes with the context.
- After World War II, civil rights leaders capitalized on America’s struggle for freedom and democracy abroad during the Cold War. Even though more than a million blacks fought for the Allied forces during World War II, most served in segregated units and received little thanks for their duty when they returned home. Many activists questioned how the U.S. government could claim to fight for freedom in foreign countries while millions of its own citizens were granted second-class rights at home. ___________________.Finally, the civil rights movement itself had an enormous, broad impact on domestic legislation. In addition to calling for social equality, many civil rights leaders drew attention to the fact that the nation’s poorest residents were mostly black.
1. Events in the 1940s and 1950s prompted some blacks to push harder for equality than their predecessors.
2. Segregationist policies in the South and the need for more skilled workers in the North had driven many blacks to move to northern cities in the period between World War I and World War II.
3. This massive movement of blacks from the South to the North became known as the Great Migration.
4. Urbanized blacks also benefited greatly from the postwar economic boom during the 1950s and received additional support from unions and the Democratic Party.
5. Cold War ideology and politics, therefore, also played major roles in securing equal rights for blacks.Answer : 5)
Option 5 is correct. It is the sentence which speaks about cold war.
- Kabbalists believe their main duty is to repair God’s shattered vessels of light and restore God’s creation to a state of perfection. _____________________ The ultimate aim of Kabbalah and its followers, therefore, is to aid God and speed up the return of the human race to paradise. Kabbalists believe they can accomplish both goals by acting and thinking righteously according to the teachings of Kabbalah, always with the aim of trying to understand and heal their shattered God.
1. But God’s boundless energy shattered the vessels, causing God’s light to descend into the material world of human beings.
2. Although Kabbalah’s leaders tend to distance their beliefs from Judaism, some strong similarities link Kabbalah to Judaism.
3. Most describe Kabbalah as a religion rooted in magic, or as an upstart offshoot of Judaism—in truth, Kabbalah is neither.
4. Kabbalists believe that once all the vessels are repaired, God will again be whole and the human race will enjoy a perfect world.
5. Kabbalists prefer to refer to Kabbalah as a way, a mystical approach to understanding the world and finding purpose in life.Answer : 4)
Option 4 is correct. This sentence gives us glimpse of kabbalists belief in God.