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English Questions – Cloze Test Set 273

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Cloze test

In the past, this deep diversity existed within a framework of (1) . This was not unusual, but true of (2) every agrarian, pre-industrial society endowed not only with a highly complex division of labour but also with an intricate network of social (3). Indeed, cultural differences often marked and strengthened a stable, rarely questioned hierarchy of roles and ranks. Differences in speech, dress, manner, food or appearance were deeply (4) manifestations of minutely arranged, culturally (5) social hierarchies — visible indicators of differential rights and duties in a highly unequal society. They performed another important function: by diminishing (6) and friction, they helped place everything and everybody in their proper place. They reduced conflict and maintained existing relations of power. Not everyone could speak, dress and eat as they pleased. Socio-cultural boundaries were not easy to cross. Our past is a system of (7) plurality.
A succession of egalitarian waves has challenged this system. The most obvious pointer here is the opposition to caste and gender hierarchies. Rights and duties do not vary today from one caste to another or between men and women. The right to equality (8) in the Constitution of India is not merely a negative right against (9) but also a positive right to be treated as an equal.
Every individual is entitled to equal respect and  concern simply as a human being. It is not legally possible today to have one set of laws for men and another for women. Article 15 sounds the death knell of the old order: “The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them”. It adds that none of these will be the basis for subjecting any citizen “to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to (a) access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and palaces of public entertainment; or (b) the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places (10) to the use of the general public”.

  1. 1) liberalism
    2) piteously
    3) liberality
    4) inequality
    5) balance
    Answer : 4)
    inequality – difference in size, degree, circumstances, etc.; lack of equality.

  2. 1) permissiveness
    2) virtually
    3) equality
    4) evenness
    5) toleration
    Answer : 2)
    virtually- nearly; almost.

  3. 1) similarity
    2) absolutely
    3) lenity
    4) sensitivity
    5) distinctions
    Answer : 5)
    distinctions – a difference or contrast between similar things or people.

  4. 1) mercifulness
    2) intertwined
    3) authentic
    4) insignificance
    5) sufferance
    Answer : 2)
    intertwined – twist or twine together.

  5. 1) leniency
    2) categorical
    3) nuanced
    4) concreted
    5) lowliness
    Answer : 3)
    nuanced – characterized by subtle shades of meaning or expression.

  6. 1) ambiguity
    2) magnanimity
    3) mediocrity
    4) substantively
    5) indubitable
    Answer : 1)
    ambiguity – the quality of being open to more than one interpretation; inexactness.

  7. 1) lenience
    2) indulgence
    3) breakable
    4) hierarchical
    5) indisputable
    Answer : 4)
    hierarchical – of the nature of a hierarchy; arranged in order of rank.

  8. 1) endurance
    2) concession
    3) detachable
    4) enshrined
    5) dissoluble
    Answer : 4)
    enshrined – place (a revered or precious object) in an appropriate receptacle.

  9. 1) discrimination
    2) distinct
    3) severable
    4) altruism
    5) compassion
    Answer : 1)
    discrimination – the unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people, especially on the grounds of race, age, or sex.

  10. 1) dedicated
    2) liberalness
    3) benevolence
    4) clemency
    5) forbearance
    Answer : 1)
    dedicated – devoted to a task or purpose.