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A cynical move is underway to promote a new, powerful, and troubling technology known as “gene drives” for use in conservation. This is not just your everyday genetic modification, known as “GMO”; it is a (1) new technology, which creates “mutagenic chain reactions” that can reshape living systems in unimaginable ways. Gene drives represent the next frontier of genetic engineering, synthetic biology, and gene editing. The technology (2) the standard rules of genetic inheritance, ensuring that a particular trait, delivered by humans into an organism’s DNA using advanced gene-editing technology, spreads to all (3) generations, thereby altering the future of the entire species. It is a biological tool with unprecedented power. Yet, instead of taking time to consider fully the (4) ethical, ecological, and social issues, many are aggressively promoting gene-drive technology for use in conservation. One proposal aims to protect native birds on Hawaii’s Kauai Island by using gene drives to reduce the population of a species of mosquito that carries avian malaria. Another plan, championed by a conservation consortium that includes US and Australian government agencies, would eradicate invasive, bird-harming mice on particular islands by introducing altered mice that prevent them from producing female offspring. Creating the “daughterless mouse” would be the first step toward so-called Genetic Biocontrol of Invasive Rodents (GBIRd), designed to cause deliberate extinctions of “pest” species like rats, in order to save “favored” species, such as (5) birds.
- 1) superficial
5) radicalAnswer – 5)
radical – (especially of change or action) relating to or affecting the fundamental nature o something; far-reaching or thorough.
- 1) perceptual
5) acquiesceAnswer – 3)
- 1) archaic
5) subsequentAnswer – 5)
- 1) relevant
5) prevalenceAnswer – 1)
relevant – closely connected or appropriate to the matter in hand.
- 1) muzzled
5) encounterAnswer – 2)
endangered – (of a species) seriously at risk of extinction.
Who owns the Internet? The answer is no one and everyone. The Internet is a network of networks. Each of the separate networks belongs to different companies and organizations, and they rely on physical servers in different countries with (6) laws and regulations. But without some common rules and norms, these networks cannot be linked effectively. (7) – meaning the end of the Internet – is a real threat. Some estimates put the Internet’s economic contribution to global GDP as high as $4.2 trillion in 2016. A fragmented “splinternet” would be very costly to the world, but that is one of the possible futures outlined last month in the report of the Global Commission on Internet Governance, chaired by former Swedish Prime Minister Carl Bildt. The Internet now connects nearly half the world’s population, and another billion people – as well as some 20 billion devices – are forecast to be connected in the next five years. But further expansion is not (8). In the Commission’s worst-case scenario, the costs imposed by the malicious actions of criminals and the political controls imposed by governments would cause people to lose trust in the Internet and reduce their use of it. The cost of cybercrime in 2016 has been estimated to be as high as $445 billion, and it could grow rapidly. As more devices, (9) from automobiles to pacemakers, are placed online, malicious hackers could turn the “Internet of Things” (IOT) into “the weaponization of everything.” Massive privacy violations by companies and governments, and cyber attacks on civilian infrastructure such as power grids (as recently happened in Ukraine), could create insecurity that (10) the Internet’s potential.
- 1) legitimate
5) monotonusAnswer – 3)
varying – differ in size, amount, degree, or nature from something else of the same general class.
- 2) concourse
5) FragmentationAnswer – 5)
Fragmentation – the process or state of breaking or being broken into fragments.
- 1) instigate
5) indefiniteAnswer – 2)
- 1) prestigious
5) narrowAnswer – 4)
ranging – vary or extend between specified limits.
- 1) undercuts
5) build upAnswer – 1)
undercuts – offer goods or services at a lower price than (a competitor).