We are here for you to provide the important current affairs July 18 2018 which have unique updates of all daily events from all newspapers such as The Hindu, The Economic Times, PIB, Times of India, India Today, Indian Express, Business Standard, all Government official websites. Our complete current affairs helps you to get more marks in Banking, insurance, UPSC, SSC, CLAT, Railway and all other competitive Exams.
Cabinet Approvals on July 18
i. On July 18, 2018, The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs chaired by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved the proposal for establishment of new medical college at Deoria, Uttar Pradesh
ii. On July 18, 2018, The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs chaired by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved the policy framework for streamlining the operations of Production Sharing Contracts (PSCs).
iii. Cabinet approves continuation of the Schemes of Pre-Matric, Post Matric and Merit-cum-Means based Scholarship Schemes
iv. The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs chaired by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved the implementation of Centrally Sponsored-Scheme for Maharashtra
v. The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved to grant Special Remission to Prisoners as part of Commemoration of 150th Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. This will be done in three phases.
vi. The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs chaired by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved the Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) of sugarcane for sugar season 2018-19.…………………………………………………………..Click here To Read more
Cabinet Approvals with Foreign Countries on July 18, 2018
i. On July 18, 2018, The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved the signing of Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) amongst BRICS Nations on the Regional Aviation Partnership Cooperation.
ii. The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi hasapproval for the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between India and Cuba on cooperation in the field of Traditional Systems of Medicine and Homeopathy.
iii. The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has given approval for the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO), India and National Agency for Drug and Food Control (BPOM), Indonesia.
iv. The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi approved the “Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA)” signed in 2010 and fresh MRA between the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) and the Institute of Certified Public Accountants (CPA), Ireland
v. The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi approved Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between theInstitute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) and Bahrain Institute of Banking and Finance (BIBF), Bahrain.
vi. The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi approved signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) and National Board of Accountants and Auditors (NBAA), Tanzania……………………………………………Click here to Read more
7th Defence Technology and Trade Initiative : Indo-US delegation meeting on Defence Cooperation held in New Delhi
On July 18, 2018, The ministry of Defence announced that Indo-US Bilateral Defence Cooperation, the 7th Defence Technology and Trade Initiative (DTTI) meeting was held between India and the US delegation in New Delhi.
Aim to bring focus to the bilateral defence trade relationship and for co-production and co-development of defence equipment.
The meeting was co-chaired by Secretary, Defence Production, Dr Ajay Kumar (From the Indian Side) and Ellen M Lord , Under Secretary of Defence for Acquisition and Sustainment, US Government (From the US side).
i. US has designated India as a ‘Major Defence Partner’.
ii. Discussions on the formulation of a Standard Operating Procedure and the Industrial Security Annex under DTTI was held.
iii. Establishment of Joint Working Groups has been made under DTTI to progress mutually agreed projects for the armed forces.
- The joint working group under the Air Force is working on the surveillance platform .
- The Indian Navy joint working group is engaged with US Navy for aircraft carrier technology cooperation.
- Projects under the DRDO are being worked on by both sides.
About Defence Technology and Trade Initiative (DTTI) meeting :
i. DTTI is an important forum leading to the 2+2 dialogue between the two countries.
ii. The meetings are held twice a year, alternately in India and the USA.
♦ Capital: Washington D.C.
♦ Currency: United States Dollar.
Nickname of cities:
|New York City||The Big Apple|
|Los Angeles||City of Angels|
|Chicago||The Windy City|
|Las Vegas||Sin City|
First commercial flight in 20 years leaves Ethiopia for Eritrea
On 18th July 2018, the first commercial flight to Eritrea in 20 years departed from Addis Ababa, in Ethiopa, after Ethiopia and Eritrea ended their conflict following a peace process.
First commercial flight in 20 years leaves Ethiopia for Eritrea:
i. Ethiopian Airlines said that, flight ET0312 to Asmara departed Bole International Airport, following an inauguration ceremony. The airlines operated two flights within an interval of 15 minutes.
iii. Eritrea was once a province of Ethiopia. In 1993, Eritrea separated after an independence struggle.
iv. Demarcation of the shared border caused a brutal conflict in 1998-2000, in which 80,000 people were killed.
v. In June 2018, Ethiopia’s Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed accepted a 2002 United Nations-backed border demarcation.
vi. This lead to peace between Ethiopia and Eritrea. Ethiopia’s Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed and Eritrea President Isaias Afwerki declared an official end to the war.
India ranks 109th in 4G Speed : Ookla
On July 18, 2018, according to a report by online speed testing platform Ookla, India was at 9.12 Mbps in the 4G speed category behind neighbors Pakistan (14.03 Mbps) and Sri Lanka (16.98).
i. India ranks 109th in overall 4G mobile internet speeds.
ii. Out of the list comprising 124 countries, Qatar ranked first in the list with 63.22 Mbps average download speed. Norway stood second in the list with 62.14 Mbps download speed.
BANKING & FINANCE
Rs 11,336 cr capital infusion in 5 PSU Banks approved by Finance Ministry
On July 18, 2018, The Finance Ministry has approved capital infusion of Rs 11,336 crore in 5 public sector banks.
This infusion was done to enable the banks to make interest payments on additional Tier 1 bonds issued by banks.
i. The 5 banks are : Punjab National Bank (PNB), Andhra Bank , Corporation Bank, Indian Overseas Bank and Allahabad Bank.
ii. This infusion is a part of the remaining Rs.65000 crore of infusion under government’s announcement of Rs.2.11 lakh crore of credit infusion in banks in 2017.
iii. The infusion is as follows:
|Bank name||Infusion (in Cr. Rs.)|
|Punjab National Bank (PNB)||2816|
|Indian Overseas Bank||2157|
i .In January 2018, the government had announced that Rs 88,000 crore would be provided as capital support to 20 state-run banks in FY18.
ii. Of this, Rs 80,000 crore was through recapitalisation bonds and Rs 8,139 crore as budgetary support, while the banks were to raise Rs 10,312 crore from the market.
iii. Of the 21public sector banks, 13 have taken the approval of their boards or shareholders to raise equity capital.
♦ All of this is a part of the Rs 2.11 lakh crore plan of infusion announced in October 2017.
♦ The government will provide Rs 1.35 lakh crore through recapitalisation bonds, while the banks will need to raise.`58,000 crore on their own.
♦ Out of the Rs 1.35 lakh crore, the government has already in fused about Rs 71,000 crore through recap bonds in the banks.
♦ PSBs are planning to raise more than Rs 50,000 crore this fiscal .
All-Women J&K Bank branch inaugurated by First Lady Usha Vohra
On July 16, 2018, The first all-women branch of Jammu & Kashmir Bank was inaugurated by the first lady Usha Vohra at an event at the Sher-i-Kashmir International Convention Centre (SKICC), in Srinagar.
The chairman of the J&K Bank Mr. Parvez Ahmad, was also present in the inauguration.
i. 13 women staffers of the inaugurated bank were given badges of distinction by the first lady.
ii. Special service given by the bank to women customers include: Pink Gold Saving Scheme, Pink Platinum Saving Scheme, Special Loan facility for Women Entrepreneurs, Pink Gold Debit Card and Pink Platinum Credit Card.
iii. These would provide financial inclusion of women, door step facilities to women in remote areas.
i. J& K has initiated ‘Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao’ scheme and has enhanced maternity benefits for working women.
ii. Large-scale opportunities to women for skill development in the non-traditional areas, such as plumbing, carpentry, driving, electrician etc. will also be provided.
Jammu & Kashmir:
♦ Governor: Narinder Nath Vohra.
♦ National Parks: Hemis National Park, Kishtwar National Park, Dachigam National Park, Salim Ali National Park.
BUSINESS & ECONOMY
Training of youth on digital skills to be done by Facebook and NSDC jointly
On July 18, 2018, Facebook and National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) took joint responsibility to train youth and entrepreneurs in the country on digital skills.
i. Through this partnership Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) will make use of Facebook’s training on digital marketing skills in its courses.
ii. Courses will be on : digital marketing, online safety and financial literacy in regional languages.
iii. Here the trainees will have access to local, domestic and international markets.
iv. They will also have access to Facebook’s Jobs tool to easily search for job openings.
i. Facebook has opened its Digital Training Hub in 2017, and has so far trained more than two lakh youth and entrepreneurs under the #BoostYourBusiness programme across 16 Indian states.
ii. It is currently training 30,000 women entrepreneurs under #SheMeansBusiness programme.
iii. It aims to train five lakh youth and entrepreneurs by 2020.
About Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE):
Union Minister: Dharmendra Pradhan.
♦ Headquarters: California, USA.
♦ CEO: Mark Zuckerberg.
♦ Founded: 2004.
BSES Yamuna Power Limited (BYPL) signs agreement to source 100 MW wind power
On 18th July 2018, power discom BSES Yamuna Power Limited (BYPL) announced that, it has signed an agreement to source100 MW wind power that will help to meet its renewable power necessities.
BYPL signs agreement to source 100 MW wind power:
i. The power would be available to BYPL from the 3rd week of November 2019, for a period of 25 years. It will be available at a competitive tariff of Rs 2.52 per unit.
ii. With this agreement, the two BSES discoms in Delhi will bring in 400 MW of wind power.
iii. Previously, BSES Rajdhani Power Limited (BRPL) had signed an agreement for 250 MW wind power and BSES Yamuna Power Limited (BYPL) for 50 MW.
iv. Out of the 400 MW wind power, the discoms will start receiving 100 MW from November 2018. Remaining 300 MW will be available from November 2019.
Walmart, Microsoft team up to take on Amazon
On 17th July 2018, Walmart and Microsoft announced a new 5 year partnership to take on Amazon in both technology and retail.
Walmart, Microsoft team up to take on Amazon:
i. This announcement was made by Walmart at the Microsoft’s Inspire partner conference in Las Vegas.
ii. Walmart said that it is partnering with Microsoft to use its cloud services. Walmart will utilise Azure and Microsoft 365 across the company.
iii. Also, new projects focused on machine learning, artificial intelligence, and data platforms will be taken up.
iv. Walmart is Amazon’s biggest retail competitor. Microsoft is Amazon’s biggest cloud services competitor. This partnership will help both the companies take on Amazon.
♦ CEO – Jeff Bezos
♦ Headquarters – Seattle, Washington, U.S.
AWARDS & RECOGNITION
Actors Akshay Kumar, Salman Khan ranked in Forbes Top 100 highest-paid entertainers
On July 18, 2018, , Bollywood actors Akshay Kumar and Salman Khan have ranked in the Forbes list of top 100 highest-paid entertainers 2018.
i. Akshay Kumar ranked 76th with earnings of $40.5M
ii. Salman Khan ranked 82nd with earnings of $37.7M
iii. The list was made on the basis of the money the actors earned during the years 2017-2018.
iv. The Top 5 of the list are:
|Ranking||Person||Profession||Earning (in USD)|
|1||Floyd Mayweather||Professional boxer||275 m|
|2||George Clooney||Actor||239 m|
|3||Kylie Jenner||Social Media star and businesswoman||166.5 m|
|4||Judy Sheindlin||Judge /Television personality||147 m|
|5||Dwayne Johnson||Actor and entertainer||124 m|
i. The world’s 100 top earning stars has a cumulative earning of $6.3 billion over 12 months which is a 22% increase than 2017. It also is the 3rdhighest sum in a 20 year history.
ii. The 17 countries the list represents are : US, UK, Barbados, Portugal, Ireland, Brazil, Argentina, Australia, Switzerland, Canada , China, Mexico, Colombia, Germany, Spain, Greece, India.
iii. The minimum of the celebrity earning is 35 million and 11 of the Top 100 have earned $100 million in 2017-18.
♦ Editor-in-chief: Steve Forbes.
♦ Founded: 1917.
APPOINTMENTS & RESIGNS
Seven new members take oath in Rajya Sabha
On 18th July 2018, seven new members took oath of office in the Rajya Sabha.
Seven new members take oath in Rajya Sabha:
i. The seven members who took oath in Rajya Sabha are:
- Rakesh Sinha
- Sonal Mansingh
- Raghunath Mohapatra
- Ram Shakal
- Elamaram Kareem
- Binoy Viswam
- Jose K Mani
ii. Rakesh Sinha, Sonal Mansingh, Raghunath Mohapatra and Ram Shakal were nominated to Rajya Sabha last week.
iii. Rakesh Sinha of RSS (Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh) is the founder and honorary director of India Policy Foundation. India Policy Foundation is a Delhi-based think tank. He took oath in Hindi.
iv. Sonal Mansingh is a popular Indian classical dancer. He performs Bharatnatyam and Odissi. He took oath in Hindi.
v. Raghunath Mohapatra is an internationally renowned sculptor and architect. He took oath in Odia.
vi. Ram Shakal is a former BJP lawmaker. He took oath in Hindi.
vii. Three newly elected members from Kerala are: CPI(M) leader and CITU state general secretary Elamaram Kareem, Binoy Viswam of CPI and Jose K Mani of Kerala Congress.
viii. In Lok Sabha, 4 new members: Kukade Madhukarrao Yashwantrao (NCP), Gavit Rajendra Dhedya (BJP), Tokheho (NDPP) and Tabassum Begum (RLD) took oath of office.
Some important temples in India:
♦ Meenakshi Temple – Madurai, Tamil Nadu
♦ Mahakaleshwar Temple – Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh
♦ Bhimashankar Temple – Pune, Maharashtra
Tata Capital appoints Anil Kaul as Managing Director of Tata Capital Housing Finance
Tata Capital has appointed Anil Kaul as the Managing Director of Tata Capital Housing Finance, with effect from 18th July 2018.
Anil Kaul – Managing Director of Tata Capital Housing Finance:
i. Anil Kaul succeeds R Vaithianathan. He has more than 20 years of experience in the financial services sector and retail lending business.
ii. He has held senior management positions at ICICI Bank, ICICI Lombard, Citibank, Standard Chartered Plc.
Central government renews appointment of Prof Sahasrabudhe as AICTE chairman
The central government has renewed the appointment of Prof D Sahasrabudhe as the chairman of the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE).
Prof D Sahasrabudhe – Chairman of AICTE:
i. The renewal of appointment of Prof D Sahasrabudhe as AICTE Chairman has been approved by the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet till he attains the age of 65 years.
ii. He was appointed as AICTE Chairman in July 2015. He has held various important academic, research and administrative positions.
Som important dams in India:
♦ Idamalayar (Eb) Dam – Idamalayar River
♦ Supa Dam – Kali Nadi River
♦ Kulamavu (Eb) Dam – Kilivillithode River
Delhi pacer Parwinder Awana announces retirement from all forms of cricket
On 17th July 2018, India and Delhi pacer Parwinder Awana announced his retirement from all forms of cricket.
Retirement of Parwinder Awana:
i. Parwinder Awana had played his last first-class game in November 2016. He is 31 years old.
ii. He represented Delhi for 9 years. He had played 2 T20 Internationals for India. He also played for Kings XI Punjab from 2012-2014.
iii. He had played 62 first-class games. He had taken 191 wickets at 29.23. He had appeared in 44 List A and 61 T20s.
ACQUISITIONS & MERGERS
Zaggle announces acquisition of Click&Pay
Zaggle, a payments and group dining company, has acquired Click&Pay, a tech start-up, backed by Dubai-based investors, in a cash-and-stock deal.
Zaggle announces acquisition of Click&Pay:
i. Click&Pay is based in Hyderabad. This acquisition will help Zaggle to develop an expense management platform and develop a unique value proposition for its customers.
ii. Raj N Phani is the Founder and Chairman of Zaggle. Kalyan Karteek is the Founder of Click&Pay.
iii. After acquisition, Click&Pay team of 25 members will join the Zaggle team that has over 150 members.
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Twelve new moons discovered orbiting Jupiter
Scientists have discovered 12 new moons orbiting Jupiter, making the total number of natural satellites circling around Jupiter to 79.
Twelve new moons discovered orbiting Jupiter:
i. The discovery includes 11 “normal” outer moons, and one “oddball.” The researchers were led by Scott S Sheppard from Carnegie Institution for Science, US.
ii. They first spotted the moons in 2017. Out of the new moons 9 are part of a distant outer swarm of moons that orbit it in the retrograde, or opposite direction of Jupiter’s spin rotation.
iii. These distant retrograde moons are categorised into at least 3 distinct orbital groupings. They are believed to be remnants of three once-larger parent bodies that broke during collisions with asteroids, comets, or other moons.
iv. The newly discovered retrograde moons take nearly 2 years to orbit Jupiter. 2 of the new discoveries are part of a closer, inner group of moons that orbit in the prograde, or same direction as Jupiter’s rotation.
v. These inner prograde moons have similar orbital distances and angles of inclinations around Jupiter.
vi. They are believed to be fragments of a larger moon that was broken. These 2 newly discovered moons take a little less than 1 year to travel around Jupiter.
v. The new “oddball” moon is more distant and more inclined than the prograde group of moons. It takes about 1.5 years to orbit Jupiter. It has an orbit that crosses the outer retrograde moons.
vi. This might cause head-on collisions between the “oddball” prograde and the retrograde moons that move in opposite directions.
vii. The “oddball” prograde moon is believed to be the last-remaining remnant of a once-larger prograde-orbiting moon.
viii. The name Valetudo has been proposed for it. It is the name of the Roman god Jupiter’s great-granddaughter, the goddess of health and hygiene.
Some important museums in India:
♦ Maharaja Lakshmeshwar Singh Museum – Darbhanga, Bihar
♦ Chandra Shekhar Singh Museum – Jamui, Bihar
♦ Srikrishna Science Centre – Patna, Bihar
World’s first blood test to detect melanoma early developed
On 18th July 2018, Australian scientists said that, they have developed the world’s first blood test capable of detecting melanoma in its early stages.
World’s first blood test to detect melanoma early developed:
i. Researchers at Edith Cowan University (ECU) in Australia said that, the new blood test will help doctors detect melanoma before it spreads throughout the body.
ii. Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer. A trial was conducted with 105 people having melanoma and 104 healthy controls.
iii. The blood test detected early stage melanoma in 79 % of the cases. At present, melanoma is detected by a visual scan and biopsy.
iv. The biopsies involve taking a minimum of one square centimetre of skin from the patient.
v. The blood test works by detecting the autoantibodies the body generates as a response to melanoma.
Some important sea ports in India:
♦ Kandla Port – Gujarat
♦ Panambur Port – Karnataka
♦ Paradip Port – Odisha
2018 Wimbledon Championships
The 2018 Wimbledon Championships was the 132nd edition of the championship, the 125th staging of the Ladies’ Singles Championship event, the 51st in the Open Era and the third Grand Slam tournament of the year.
i. Djokovic wins fourth(2011/2014/2015/2018) Wimbledon title.Overall it is his 13th career Grand slam.
ii. Angelique Kerber’s first Wimbledon title two years after she was beaten in the final by Williams……………………………………………….Click here to Read more
|Men’s Singles||Novak Djokovic(Serbia)||Kevin Anderson (South Africa)|
|Women’s Singles||Angelique Kerber (Germany)||Serena Williams (USA)|
|Men’s Doubles||Mike Bryan (USA)||Michael Venus (New Zealand)|
|Jack Sock (USA)||Raven Klaasen(South Africa)|
|Women’s Doubles||Barbora Krejcikova (Czech Republic)||Nicole Melichar (USA)|
|Katerina Siniakova (Czech Republic)||Kveta Peschke(Czech Republic)|
|Mixed Doubles||Alexander Peya (Austria)||Victoria Azarenka(Belarus)|
|Nicole Melichar (USA)||Jamie Murray (UK)|
India bags 9 medals – 4 Silver and 5 Bronze in 7th World Junior Wushu championships which was held in Brasilia, Brazil
On July 18, 2018, , India bagged 9 medals – 4 Silver and 5 Bronze in the 7th World Junior Wushu championships held in Brasilia, Brazil from July 10-16,2018.
i. The Silver Medals won were by:
|Babulu (42 kg sub-junior)||In Sanshou discipline (a Chinese self-defense system and combat sport )|
|Saleem ((56 kg sub junior)|
|Savita (48 kg junior)|
|Rohit (80 kg junior)|
|Himanshu (56 kg junior)||In Sanshou discipline (a Chinese self-defense system and combat sport )|
|Shruti (60 kg junior)|
|Jahnvi (52 kg junior)|
|Karanjit Taijiquan||In Taolu or Chinese Kungfu,|
♦ The World Junior Wushu Championships (WJWC) is the official world championship event which is hosted by the International Wushu Federation. It is held biennially.
♦ The Brazilian Wushu Confederation is responsible for the organization of the 7th WJWC under the auspices of the IWUF.
Australian football player Tim Cahill retires from Australia duty
On 17th July 2018, Australian football player Tim Cahill retired from international football.
Retirement of Tim Cahill:
i. Tim Cahill is 38 years old. He is Australia’s all-time leading goal-scorer. He has scored 50 international goals in 107 appearances.
ii. He did not mention if he would continue playing club football. He was born in Sydney.
iii. He started his international career by playing for Western Samoa under-20s. In 2004, he joined the Socceroos.
iv. In 2006, he became the first Australian to score a goal at the World Cup in Germany.
v. Also, in 2007, he became the first Australian to score at an Asian Cup. In 2015, he helped the Socceroos to win the Asian title for the first time.
vi. He had appeared in 4 World Cups. He had also played for China’s Shanghai Shenhua and Hangzhou Greentown.
Some important stadiums in India:
♦ HPCA Cricket Stadium – Dharamshala, Himachal Pradesh
♦ Indira Gandhi Stadium – Una, Himachal Pradesh
Neeraj Chopra strikes gold at Sotteville Athletics Meet in France
On 18th July 2018, Indian javelin thrower Neeraj Chopra won gold medal at the Sotteville Athletics Meet in France.
Neeraj Chopra strikes gold at Sotteville Athletics Meet in France:
i. Neeraj Chopra made a throw of 85.17m and won the gold medal. Moldova’s Andrian Mardare with a throw of 81.48m secured second position.
strong>ii. Lithuania’s Edis Matusevicius with a throw of 79.31m secured third position. Neeraj Chopra is 20 years old. He hails from Panipat.
iii. Neeraj Chopra had won gold medal in the 2016 World Junior Championship with a record throw of 86.48m.
iv. He had also won gold medal at the Commonwealth Games 2018 in Gold Coast, Australia. He broke the national record with a 87.43m throw at the Doha Diamond League, with a fourth position finish.
Some important airports in India:
♦ Anna International Airport – Chennai
♦ Rajiv Gandhi International Airport – Hyderabad
♦ Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport – Lucknow
Nelson Mandela International Day – July 18
On 18th July 2018, Nelson Mandela International Day was observed all over the world.
Nelson Mandela International Day:
i. Nelson Mandela International Day 2018 marks the 100th birth anniversary of Nelson Mandela, who was born on 18th July 1918.
ii. The Nelson Mandela Foundation has dedicated Nelson Mandela International Day 2018 to Action Against Poverty.
iii. In 2009, UN General Assembly declared 18 July as Nelson Mandela International Day.
iv. The UN General Assembly also adopted the revised United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, and approved that they should be known as the “Nelson Mandela Rules”.
v. Nelson Mandela is the late President of South Africa. He had spent 27 years in prison in his struggle against racism, poverty and social injustice.
Some important bird sanctuaries in India:
♦ Bordoibam Beelmukh Birds’ Sanctuary – Assam
♦ Deepor beel bird sanctuary – Assam
♦ Panidihing bird sanctuary – Assam