On november 11, 2019 Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) from the majority of the G20 (group of 20) countries and 14 research organisations have prepared a report titled “Brown to Green Report 2019” which comprises of analysation of the climate action track records of the G20 nations. The report was published by Climate transparency. The report in detail are as follows,
i.Indicators: The report was prepared based on 80 indicators on decarbonisation, climate policies, finance and vulnerability to the impacts of climate change.This report is considered as the most comprehensive review of the G20 climate action, efforts to reduce emissions and adapt to the climate action goals known as the “ Nationally Determined Contribution” (NDC).
ii.Report on India: Among the G20 nations, India was the only country close to the 1.5 degree celsius temperature rise pathway. It is also to be noted that as per the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the global temperature increase was limited to 1.5°C from 3°C.
iii.Emission report: 80% of the global greenhouse gas(GHG) emissions were from the G20 nations. It accounted for 85% of the global Gross Domestic Product(GDP).
- The carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions in all sectors of the G20 nations have increased in 2018 with the highest rise in the building sector (4.1%).
- New buildings have to be near zero-energy by 2020-25 to keep global warming below 1.5 degrees.
iv.Renewable energy preparedness: India is currently investing more in renewable energy whereas Brazil and Germany remained as the only G20 countries with long term renewable strategies.
- Brazil leads with 82.5% renewables.
- Saudi Arabia, South Korea and South Africa lagged in renewable energy preparedness having the range of 0-5%.
- The Paris Agreement on climate change has invited countries to submit their ‘mid-century long-term low-GHG emissions development strategies,’ or long term strategies, by 2020.
- Various countries have adopted G20 long-term strategies and net-zero emissions targets by 2050. India is in preparation regarding the 2050 target adoption.
- Coal needs to be phased out by 2030 in OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries and by 2040 globally.
vi.NDC implementation laggers: South Korea, Canada and Australia lagged in implementing the NCD. click here to know more.
G20- The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 19 countries and the European Union (EU).
Founded- 26 September 1999,
Chairman- Shinzo Abe.
G20 members- Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, EU, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
About climate transparency:
Fact- Climate Transparency is a global partnership with members mostly from G20 nations.
Mission- its mission is to stimulate a ‘race to the top’ in G20 climate action and to shift investments towards zero carbon technologies through transparency.