The research of archaeologist of India and Canada found evidence of dairy production in the Indus Valley Civilization. The research discovered that dairy was produced and processed by the Harappans back in 2500 BCE(Before the Common Era). The study was carried out on 59 shards of pottery from the archaeological site in Kotada Bhadli, Gujarat.
The findings of the research were published in Scientific Reports of Nature Research Journal.
Kalyan Sekhar Chakraborty, Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, Canada was the first author of the paper and Greg F. Slater, Heather M.-L. Miller, Prabodh Shirvalkar & Yadubirsingh Rawat are the other authors.
2020 marks the 100 years of the discovery of Indus Valley Civilization.
About the study:
i.The team used molecular analysis techniques to study the residues from the ancient pottery.
ii.Techniques like C16 and C18 analysis were used to identify the source of lipids which were preserved by the porous pots.
i.The team found traces of residues that provide evidence of dairy product processing by the Harappans which shed light on the rural economy of the civilisation.
ii.The residues found on the cooking vessels indicate that the milk was boiled and consumed and the residues on bowls indicate heated milk or curd.
iii.The remains of perforated vessels (similar vessels were used to make cheese) indicate that they processed milk into other forms.
The study on the tooth enamel from fossils of cattle, water buffalo, goat and sheep in the area suggests that the cattle and water buffalo died at an older age which indicates that they were raised for milk and the majority of goat and sheep died young indicating that they were raised for meat.
Indus Valley Civilization:
i.The Indus Valley Civilization(IVC) which is also known as Harappan Civilization was an urban civilisation with well-planned and well-built towns. The IVC flourished in the western parts of South Asia(Pakistan and Western India) in around 2500 BCE(Before the Common Era).
ii.The Archaeological Department of India carried out an excavation in the Indus Valley in 1924 and unearthed the ruins of Mohenjodaro and Harappa (two old cities)
Sumerian civilization is the earliest known civilisation in the world.It is located in the southernmost part of Mesopotamia, Sumer.
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