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Paris Agreement: India’s Climate Pledges Rank 4th In Terms of Ambition & 5th In Terms of Compliance

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India’s climate pledges ranks 4th in ambition, 5th in compliance

According to a new study published in the scientific journal Nature Climate Change, India’s updated climate pledge to the Paris Agreement has been ranked 5th in compliance and 4th in ambition.

  • The study includes eight countries, the US, China, Australia, Saudi Arabia, Russia, Australia, Brazil—as well as the EU.

While the European Union (EU) claimed the top spot, the United States (US) was placed bottom in compliance and second to last in ambition.

Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement is a global treaty in which over 200 countries pledged to work together to cut Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and combat climate change.

Aim: To keep global warming well below 2 degrees Celsius (2°C), preferably 1.5°C, when compared to pre-industry levels.

During the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 26) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which was held in Glasgow, Scotland, in 2021, almost all signatories to the Paris Agreement updated their climate commitments.

Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC)

i.Nations with a high likelihood of meeting their climate pledges or Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) were highly ranked in compliance.

  • The NDCs, on the other hand, are not legally binding.

ii.Nations with ambitious commitments were given high ambition rankings.

iii.The initiative focuses on practical methods for achieving nearly zero global warming gas emissions.

Key Facts from the Study:

i.According to the study, the EU was considered to be the most credible, ranking first in compliance and ambition.

ii.In the compliance category, the EU was followed by China, Australia, South Africa, India, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, and the US.

iii.In terms of ambition, the EU was followed by China, South Africa, India, Australia, Brazil, Russia, the US, and Saudi Arabia.

Declining Credibility of US  

i.The Inflation Reduction Act (IRA), a new law to combat climate change introduced in August 2022, doesn’t accomplish much for the US.

  • The law allocates USD 369 billion to finance tax breaks for clean energy and electric vehicles, domestic manufacturing of batteries and solar panels, and pollution reduction.
  • With the IRA, the US will be on track to cut emissions by about 40%, which still falls short of the US commitment of 50% by 2030.

ii.However, the study was completed before the IRA was proposed.


Lead author of the study: David Victor, Industrial Innovation Professor, School of Global Policy and Strategy, University of California San Diego (US), & Co-Director, Deep Decarbonization Initiative.

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About the European Union (EU):

The European Union (EU) is a unique economic and political union between 27 European countries. It has 3 main institutions: European Parliament, European Council & European Commission.
European Parliament President – Roberta Metsola
European Council President – Charles Michel
European Commission President – Ursula von der Leyen