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English Questions: Vocabulary Set 255

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some difficult words from editorials , which is important and very helpful for IBPS PO/CLERK/LIC AAO/RRB & SSC CGL EXAM and other exams !!!

The Hindu: No discrimination: on health insurance in India

The Delhi High Court’s order striking down a discriminatory exclusion clause in a health insurance policy, and upholding the claim of a patient, should have the broader effect of eliminating similar exclusions. The case involved a rare heart condition based on which United India Insurance Company rejected the claim, viewing it as a manifestation of a genetic disorder. By its very nature, such exclusion defeats the purpose of the health policy. But then, policies sold to individuals invariably contain a plethora of exclusions in the fine print, diminishing their practical value. They are heavily weighted in favour of the insurer. The court has struck a blow for the rights of the individual by holding that exclusion of the kind invoked does not just involve a contractual issue between the two sides, but the basic right to health flowing from Article 21 of the Constitution. It has gone further to interpret the right to health as being meaningful only with the right to health care, and by extension, health insurance required to access it. This is good advice. The Centre, which has committed itself to a universal National Health Protection Scheme, and the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority would do well to heed it. They must review all the policies, and eliminate unreasonable exclusionary clauses designed to avoid claims.Several studies have pointed out that health insurance in India suffers from lack of scale, covering only about 29% of the households surveyed under the National Family Health Survey-4, that too in a limited way. The health-care system also lacks regulation of costs. There is asymmetry of information, with the insured member unable to assess the real scope of the policy or negotiate the terms with the provider. Questions such as these led to the enactment of a new health-care law in the United States during the Barack Obama administration, whereby strict obligations were placed on insurers and unreasonable exclusions removed. India’s health insurance and hospital sectors closely follow the American pattern, and are in need of strong regulation. This is necessary to define costs, curb frauds and empower patients. As the Delhi High Court has observed, exclusions cannot be unreasonable or based on a broad parameter such as genetic disposition or heritage. Insurance law has to be revisited to also ensure that there is a guaranteed renewal of policies, that age is no bar for entry, and pre-existing conditions are uniformly covered. Problems of exclusion will be eliminated if the payer-insurer is the state, the financing is done through public taxes, and coverage is universal. Given its stated intent to ensure financial protection against high health costs, India should adopt such a course. The short-term priority is to remove discriminatory clauses in policies and expand coverage to as many people as possible.

1. Exclusions (noun) : बहिष्करण

Meaning : the process of excluding or the state of being excluded.

Synonyms : barring, keeping out, debarment, debarring, disbarring, banning, ban, prohibition, embargo; rejection, ostracism, banishment.

Antonyms : acceptance, addition, admittance, allowance, inclusion, incorporation, welcome.

Usage : he had a hand in my exclusion from the committee.

2. Manifestation (noun) : अभिव्यक्ति

Meaning : the action or fact of showing something.

Synonyms : display, demonstration, showing, show, exhibition, presentation, indication, illustration, exemplification, exposition, disclosure, declaration, expression, profession.

Antonyms : concealment, cover, hiding, obscurity, vagueness.

Usage : the manifestation of anxiety over disease.

3. Invariably (adverb) : बेबदलता से

Meaning : in every case or on every occasion; always.

Synonyms : always, every time, each time, on every occasion, at all times, without fail, without exception, whatever happens, universally; everywhere, in all places, in all cases, in every case, in all instances, in every instance; regularly, consistently, repeatedly, habitually, unfailingly.

Antonyms : at no time, never.

Usage : ranch meals are invariably big and hearty.

4. Diminishing (verb) : कम होनेवाला

Meaning : make or become less.

Synonyms : decrease, decline, reduce, lessen, shrink, contract, grow smaller, fall off, drop off, slacken off; fall, drop, sink, slump, plummet, plunge.

Antonyms : develop,enlarge,expand,extend,grow,increase, lengthen,prolong.

Usage : the new law is expected to diminish the government’s chances.

5. Heed (verb) : सावधान रहना

Meaning : pay attention to; take notice of.

Synonyms : pay attention to, take notice of, take note of, pay heed to, be heedful of, attend to, listen to, notice, note, pay regard to, bear in mind, be mindful of, mind, mark, consider, take into account, take into consideration, be guided by, follow, obey, keep, keep to, adhere to, abide by, observe.

Antonyms : carelessness, disregard, heedlessness, inattention, indifference, neglect, negligence, thoughtlessness.

Usage : he should have heeded the warnings.

6. Asymmetry (noun) : विषमता

Meaning : lack of equality or equivalence between parts or aspects of something; lack of symmetry.

Synonyms : crookedness, dissymmetry, imbalance, inequality, lack of balance, lopsidedness, skewness, unevenness.

Antonyms : beauty, grace, shapeliness.

Usage : there was an asymmetry between the right and left ears.

7. Negotiate (verb) : खरीद फरोख्त

Meaning : obtain or bring about by discussion.

Synonyms : arrange, work out, thrash out, hammer out, reach an agreement on, agree on, come to terms about, reach terms on, broker; settle, clinch, conclude, contract, pull off, bring off, bring about, transact; informalsort out, swing.

Antonyms : remain, stay.

Usage : Peter decided to remain with the company after negotiating a new contract.

8. Enactment (noun) : कानून

Meaning : the process of passing legislation.

Synonyms : passing, making law, ratification, ratifying, validation, validating, sanction, sanctioning, approval, approving, endorsement, adoption; decreeing, ordaining, legislating; application, appliance, implementation.

Antonyms : repeal.

Usage : the enactment of equal pay legislation.

9. Eliminated (verb) : सफाया

Meaning :completely remove or get rid of (something).

Synonyms : alone, cast aside, cast away, deserted, discarded, dissipated, dropped, dumped, eighty-sixed, eliminated, empty, forgotten, forsaken, given up, godforsaken, jilted.

Antonyms :adopted, cherished, defended, maintained, supported.

Usage : the cause of the disease has been eliminated.

10. Intent (Noun) : इरादा

Meaning : intention or purpose.

Synonyms : aim, purpose, intention, objective, object, goal, target, end; design, plan, scheme; resolve, resolution, determination; wish, desire, ambition, idea, dream, aspiration, hope.

Antonyms : distracted, irresolute.

Usage : he tried to divine his father’s intent in asking the question.