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English Questions: Vocabulary Set 227

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Hello Aspirants.

Welcome to Online English Section with explanation in AffairsCloud.com. Here we are providing some difficult words from editorials , which is important and very helpful for IBPS PO/CLERK/LIC AAO/RRB & SSC CGL EXAM and other exams !!!

The Hindu: Economic Survey: Cautious optimism

The Economic Survey for 2017-18 paints the picture of an economy that gives reason for both optimism and caution. It projects that GDP growth could accelerate to 7-7.5% in 2018-19, from 6.75% in the current fiscal, reinstating India as the world’s fastest-growing major economy. According to Chief Economic Adviser Arvind Subramanian, the key factors contributing to the positive prognosis are the reform measures: the July 1 implementation of the Goods and Services Tax and the steps taken to address the twin balance sheet problem in the banking sector. The latter includes the push to use the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code for debt resolution and the initiative to recapitalise public sector banks. Adding to these domestic enablers are the fair winds of a global recovery that have already lent a lift to overseas demand for India’s goods and services. But capitalising on these favourable factors while remaining vigilant to other macroeconomic threats, including a key risk in the form of persistently high oil prices, would require exemplary economic stewardship. Among the concerns the CEA has flagged is one relating to what the Survey calls “a classic emerging market ‘sudden stall’ induced by sharp corrections to elevated stock prices.” With Indian stock indices continuing to soar to new highs on an almost daily basis, the Survey warns against “sanguineness about its sustainability”. A correction in the stock market, besides triggering capital outflows, could force policymakers to raise interest rates, choking off the nascent recovery.
On the fiscal front, the survey contends that the Centre needs to reappraise its priorities. The onus, it argues, has to be squarely placed on establishing and maintaining policy credibility. To this end, it argues against “setting overly ambitious targets for consolidation, especially in a pre-election year” that are based on optimistic and unrealistic assumptions. Instead, it recommends a “modest consolidation” that would signal a return to the path of calibrated deficit reductions. In doing so, it appears that the Survey is signalling that the government may have to retain the elbow room to stabilise the GST, complete the recapitalisation exercise and, most crucially, support agriculture. Devoting an entire chapter to ‘Climate, Climate Change and Agriculture’, the CEA and his team have stressed on the dangers climate change poses to the outlook for farm growth. With the potential to reduce annual agricultural incomes — by as much as 20-25% for unirrigated areas — the Survey calls for a range of mitigation measures including extensive provision of efficient irrigation technologies and a wholesale review of the cereal-centric approach to policy. Citing job creation and education as key priorities, the Survey sets out a plan for rapid economic expansion by recommending that policymakers keep their sights trained on strengthening “the only two truly sustainable engines — private investment and exports.”

1.Reinstating(verb) : पुनः स्थापित करना

Meaning : restore (someone or something) to their former position or state.

Synonyms : restore, return to a former position, return to power, put back, replace, bring back, reinstitute, reinstall, rehabilitate, re-establish.

Antonyms : fire, let go.

Usage : the union threatened strike action if Owen was not reinstated

2.Vigilant(adjective) : जागरूक

Meaning : keeping careful watch for possible danger or difficulties.

Synonyms : watchful, on the lookout, observant, sharp-eyed, keen-eyed, gimlet-eyed, eagle-eyed, hawk-eyed, with eyes like a hawk, with one’s eyes open, keeping one’s eyes peeled/skinned, attentive, paying attention, alert, on the alert, on one’s toes, on the qui vive; awake, wide awake, unsleeping.

Antonyms : careless, impulsive, inattentive, indiscreet, negligent.

Usage : there had been a rash of petty thefts and we were warned to be vigilant.

3.Stewardship(noun) : परिचारक का पद

Meaning : the job of supervising or taking care of something, such as an organization or property.

Synonyms : attention, care, cherishing, conservancy, conserving, control, custody, directing, economy, governing, guardianship, guarding, keeping, maintenance, management, managing, preserval, preserving, protecting, protection, safeguarding, safekeeping, salvation, saving, stewardship, storage, supervising, supervision, sustentation, upkeep.

Antonyms : destruction, neglect, spending, squandering, waste.

Usage : the funding and stewardship of the NHS.

4.Sanguine(adjective) : आशापूर्ण

Meaning : optimistic or positive, especially in an apparently bad or difficult situation.

Synonyms : optimistic, bullish, hopeful, buoyant, positive, disposed to look on the bright side, confident, cheerful, cheery, bright, assured; informalupbeat.

Antonyms : depressed, pessimistic, sad, unhappy.

Usage : he is sanguine about prospects for the global economy.

5.Nascent(adjective) : नवजात

Meaning – (especially of a process or organization) just coming into existence and beginning to display signs of future potential.

Synonyms : beginning, blossoming, burgeoning, bursting forth, embryonic, fledgling, fresh, germinal, germinating, growing, incipient, maturing, nascent, opening, potential, promising, pubescent, pullulating, shooting up, sprouting, vegetating, young.

Antonyms : dying, shrinking, withering.

Usage : the nascent space industry.

6.Contends(verb) : तर्क

Meaning : struggle to surmount (a difficulty).

Synonyms : cope with, face, grapple with, deal with, take on, pit oneself against; resist, withstand.

Antonyms : abandon, desert, give up, leave, retreat.

Usage : the peasants had to contend with lack of food and primitive living conditions.

7.Onus(noun) : भार

Meaning : something that is one’s duty or responsibility.

Synonyms : burden, responsibility, liability, obligation, duty, weight, load, charge, mantle, encumbrance; cross to bear, millstone round one’s neck, albatross.

Antonyms : aid, benefit, blessing, help.

Usage : the onus is on you to show that you have suffered loss.

8.Consolidation (noun) : समेकन

Meaning : the action or process of making something stronger or more solid.

Synonyms : lliance, amalgamation, association, coadunation, coalition, compression, concentration, condensation, federation, fusion, incorporation, melding, mergence, merger, merging, reinforcement, solidification, strengthening, unification.
Antonyms – dispersal, division, parting, separation, severance, weakening.

Usage : the permanent consolidation of peace.

9.Calibrated(verb) : जांच करना

Meaning :correlate the readings of (an instrument) with those of a standard in order to check the instrument’s accuracy.

Synonyms : align, balance, bring into line, calibrate, connect, correct, fine-tune, fit, fix, focus, grind, improve, improve accommodate, mend, overhaul, polish, put in working order, readjust, rectify, regulate, renovate, repair, service, set, sharpen, square, tighten, troubleshoot, tune up.

Antonyms : derange, disarrange, unsuit.

Usage : a separate control experiment is then carried out to calibrate the calorimeter.

10.Retain(Noun) : बनाए रखने के

Meaning : continue to have (something); keep possession of.

Synonyms : maintain, keep, continue, preserve, reserve, conserve, perpetuate, cherish.

Antonyms : free, let go, lose, release, spend.

Usage : keep, keep possession of, keep hold of, hold on to, hold fast to, keep back, hang on to, cling to; literarycleave to.