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English Questions: Vocabulary Set 218

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Hello Aspirants.

Welcome to Online English Section with explanation in AffairsCloud.com. Here we are providing some difficult words from editorials , which is important and very helpful for IBPS PO/CLERK/LIC AAO/RRB & SSC CGL EXAM and other exams !!!

The Hindu: Dual duty: on the twin responsibilities of States

The state cannot choose between protecting freedom of expression and preserving law and order. It has a duty to do both. This is the core message of the Supreme Court order staying the notifications and decisions of four States to prohibit the screening of the film Padmaavat, and directing them to ensure that law and order is maintained during its exhibition. Gujarat and Rajasthan have notified a ban, while Haryana and Madhya Pradesh have indicated they would follow suit. What troubled the court was that creative freedom could be so easily prohibited by the state citing a possible risk to public order. It needs no reiteration that summary bans on films violate the freedom of speech and expression enshrined in Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution. Such a right is subject to reasonable restrictions on some grounds, including public order. However, the use of the threat of violence and other forms of intimidation cannot give the state an oblique reason to stifle fundamental freedoms by voicing apprehensions and invoking its powers to maintain peace. In the past, the Supreme Court has made it clear that it cannot give anyone a virtual veto over a certificate issued by the Central Board of Film Certification, a statutory body, by threatening violence. The court has reiterated that the grant of a certificate by the CBFC denudes the state of the power to prevent the exhibition of a film.
The interim order, which paves the way for Padmaavat to be released on January 25, is in line with a series of judicial decisions. In S. Rangarajan v. P. Jagjivan Ram (1989), the Supreme Court said the state cannot plead inability to handle the problem of a hostile audience as that “would be tantamount to negation of the rule of law and a surrender to blackmail and intimidation.” In Prakash Jha Productions v. Union of India (2011), it reiterated that it is the state’s duty to maintain law and order. In the current controversy, the filmmakers agreed to change its name from Padmavati to Padmaavat. The new title indicates it is based on a medieval poem on a legendary Rajput queen and not any historical personality. They also agreed to several cuts suggested by a special panel formed by the CBFC. If even after these concessions the protestors are allowed to obtain a ban, it would undoubtedly amount to a base surrender to blackmail and intimidation. It would be a taint on the country’s record of protecting free speech if a film with admittedly no claim to historical accuracy is banned on the mere pretext that some people, who have not even seen it, find it offensive. The Supreme Court has indicated where the constitutional duty of State governments lies. It is now up to them to live up to that expectation.

1.Reiteration(Verb) : पुनरावृत्ति

Meaning : the action of repeating something, typically for emphasis or clarity.

Synonyms : recapitulation, redundancy, repeat, restatement.

Antonyms : infrequency, irregularity, uncommonness.

Usage : the reiteration of his campaign promise to cut taxes.

2.Enshrined(Verb) : प्रतिष्ठापित

Meaning : preserve (a right, tradition, or idea) in a form that ensures it will be protected and respected.

Synonyms : set down, set out, spell out, express, lay down, set in stone, embody, realize, manifest, incorporate, represent, contain, include, preserve, treasure, immortalize, cherish.

Antonyms : defile, desecrate, disrespect.

Usage : the right of all workers to strike was enshrined in the new constitution.

3.Intimidation(Noun) : धमकी

Meaning : the action of intimidating someone, or the state of being intimidated.

Synonyms : frightening, menacing, terrifying, scaring, alarming, terrorization, terrorizing, cowing, subduing, daunting, unnerving; threatening, domineering, browbeating, bullying, pressuring, pressurizing, pressurization, coercion, harassment, harrying, hounding, tormenting, plaguing; tyrannization, persecution, oppression; informalstrong-arm tactics, arm-twisting, bulldozing, steamrollering, railroading.

Antonyms : compliment, defense, flattery, praise, support.

Usage : there had been blatant intimidation of witnesses.

4.Stifle(Verb) : दबाना

Meaning : make (someone) unable to breathe properly; suffocate.

Synonyms : suffocate, choke, asphyxiate; smother.

Antonyms : encourage, help, persuade.

Usage : people in the streets were stifled by the fumes.

5.Voicing(Verb) : व्यक्त

Meaning : express in words.

Synonyms : express, give expression to, vocalize, give voice to, put in words, give utterance to, communicate, declare, state, set forth, bring into the open, make public, assert, divulge, reveal, proclaim, announce, raise, table, air, ventilate, vent, give vent to, pour out, mention, talk of, point out, go into; utter, say, speak, articulate, enunciate, pronounce, mouth.

Usage
: get teachers to voice their opinions on important subjects.

6.Denudation (Verb) – अनाच्छादन

Meaning : to make naked or bare; strip.

Synonyms : acknowledgment, airing, baring, betrayal, confession, defenselessness, denudation, denunciation, disclosure, display, divulgence, divulging, exhibition, exposé, giveaway, hazard, introduction, jeopardy, laying open, liability, manifestation, nakedness, openness, peril.

Antonyms
: concealment, covering, hiding.

Usage
: The storm completely denuded the trees.

7.Pretext(Noun) : बहाना

Meaning
: a reason given in justification of a course of action that is not the real reason.

Synonyms : excuse, false excuse, ostensible reason, alleged reason, plea, supposed grounds; guise, ploy, pretence, ruse, semblance, show, blind, pose, masquerade, mask, cloak, veil, veneer, smokescreen, camouflage, cover, travesty, parody, charade.

Antonyms : reality, truth.

Usage
: the rebels had the perfect pretext for making their move.

8.Tantamount(Adjective) : समान

Meaning :. equivalent in seriousness to; virtually the same as.

Synonyms : alike, as good as, commensurate, duplicate, equal, equivalent, identical, indistinguishable, like, parallel, same as, selfsame, synonymous, uniform, very.

Antonyms : different, opposite, polar, reverse.

Usage
: the resignations were tantamount to an admission of guilt.

9.Negation(Noun) : नकार

Meaning : the contradiction or denial of something.

Synonyms : denial, contradiction, repudiation, disproving, refutation, refuting, rebuttal, countering, disclaiming; nullification, cancellation, voiding, revocation, rescinding, abrogation, repeal, retraction; disaffirmation; rare disproval.

Antonyms : allowance, approval, permission.

Usage
: there should be confirmation—or negation—of the findings.

10.Taint(Noun) : कलंक

Meaning : a trace of a bad or undesirable substance or quality.

Synonyms : trace, touch, suggestion, hint, tinge, tincture; smear, stain, blot, blemish, slur, stigma, tarnish, scar, black mark, spot, imperfection, flaw, fault, defect, blot on one’s escutcheon; discredit, dishonour, disgrace, shame.

Antonyms : cleanliness, perfection.

Usage : free from the taint of corruption.