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English Questions: Vocabulary Set 202

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Hello Aspirants.

Welcome to Online English Section with explanation in AffairsCloud.com. Here we are providing some difficult words from editorials , which is important and very helpful for IBPS PO/CLERK/LIC AAO/RRB & SSC CGL EXAM and other exams !!!

The Hindu: For a wider pool: clinical trials and the burden of volunteering for them

Clinical trials involving human subjects have long been a flashpoint between bioethicists and clinical research organisations (CROs) in India. Landmark amendments to the Drugs and Cosmetics Act in 2013 led to better protection of vulnerable groups such as illiterate people, but more regulation is needed to ensure truly ethical research. While CROs have argued that more rules will stifle the industry, the truth is that ethical science is often better science. The big problem plaguing clinical research is an over-representation of low-income groups among trial subjects. Sometimes CROs recruit them selectively, exploiting financial need and medical ignorance; at other times people over-volunteer for the money. Such over-volunteering occurs more frequently in bioequivalence studies, which test the metabolism of generics in healthy subjects. Because these subjects are well-paid, and get no therapeutic benefit, their only reward from the trial is financial. This results in an incentive to lie about one’s medical history or enrol in multiple trials to maximise one’s income.
Such deception is a risk not only to volunteer health but also to society, because it can throw off the trial’s results. In recent years, several Indian CROs were found by European drug regulators and the World Health Organisation to be fudging bioequivalence data. While such duplicity by a CRO is likely to be found out, volunteer deception, which can impact data as greatly, can slip under the radar. Unsafe drugs can make their way into the market as a result, or safe drugs can get rejected. This is why volunteer honesty is paramount. But how can regulators ensure this? One potential solution is a national registry of trial volunteers, which will alert a CRO when someone signs up for two studies simultaneously. But this will need work, because volunteer privacy cannot be compromised. So regulators need to create a system that anonymises each participant’s data. Another option is to pay volunteers less, taking away the financial incentive to fudge their participation history. But this measure, in isolation, would reduce trial participation dramatically: an unacceptable side-effect because clinical trials are essential to drug research.

1.Involving(verb) : शामिल

Meaning : have or include (something) as a necessary or integral part or result.

Synonyms : require, necessitate, demand, call for; entail, mean, imply, presuppose, presume, assume; appertain to, pertain to, relate to, concern.

Antonyms : exonerate, free, liberate, pardon.

Usage : the conflict reached a flashpoint last year.

2.Vulnerable(adjective) : चपेट में

Meaning : exposed to the possibility of being attacked or harmed, either physically or emotionally.

Synonyms : in danger, in peril, in jeopardy, at risk, endangered, unsafe, unprotected, ill-protected, unguarded; open to attack, attackable, assailable, exposed, wide open; undefended, unshielded, unfortified, unarmed, without arms, without weapons, defenceless, easily hurt/wounded/damaged, powerless, helpless; rarepregnable, impuissant, resistless.

Antonyms : closed, guarded, protected, safe, secure.

Usage : they evacuated children from the most vulnerable cities.

3.Plaguing(noun) : नाक में दम

Meaning : cause continual trouble or distress to.

Synonyms : afflict, bedevil, cause suffering to, torture, torment, trouble, beset, dog, curse, rack.
Antonyms : advantage, good fortune, good luck.

Usage : he has been plagued by poor health.

4.Exploiting(Verb) : शोषण

Meaning : make full use of and derive benefit from (a resource).

Synonyms: utilize, make use of, put to use, use, use to good advantage, turn/put to good use, make the most of, capitalize on, benefit from, turn to account, draw on; profit from/by, make capital out of; informalcash in on, milk.

Antonyms : decent, honest, honorable, principled, pure, trustworthy, truthful, uncorrupt, upright.

Usage : platinum was originally exploited by the Indians of Colombia and Ecuador.

5.Frequently(adverb) : regularly or habitually; often.

Meaning : regularly or habitually; often.

Synonyms : regularly, often, very often, all the time, habitually, customarily, routinely, usually, normally, commonly; again and again, time and again, over and over again, repeatedly, recurrently, continually, constantly; many times, many a time, lots of times, on several occasions; oftentimes; literaryoft, oft-times.

Antonyms : infrequently.

Usage : he frequently attended church.

6.Incentive(noun) : प्रोत्साहन.

Meaning : a thing that motivates or encourages someone to do something.

Synonyms : inducement, motivation, motive, reason, stimulus, stimulant, spur, impetus, encouragement, impulse; incitement, goad, provocation; attraction, lure, bait; informalcarrot, sweetener, come-on; rarepremium, douceur.

Antonyms : block, hindrance, turn-off.

Usage : tax laws which give factories a financial incentive to reduce pollution.

7.Deception(Noun) : धोखा.

Meaning : a thing that deceives.

Synonyms : deceit, deceitfulness, duplicity, double-dealing, fraud, fraudulence, cheating, trickery, duping, hoodwinking, chicanery, underhandedness, deviousness, slyness, cunning, craft, craftiness, wiliness, artfulness, guile, dissimulation, dissembling, bluff, bluffing, lying, pretence, artifice, treachery; informalcrookedness, monkey business, funny business.

Antonyms : frankness,honesty,honor,openness, trustworthiness,truth, truthfulness, uprightness.

Usage : the court found that they had obtained money by deception.

8.Recent(Adjective) : हाल का

Meaning : having happened, begun, or been done not long ago; belonging to a past period comparatively close to the present.

Synonyms : new, the latest, late, current, fresh, modern, contemporary, present-day, up to date, up to the minute, latter-day, latter; rareneoteric.

Antonyms : earlier, future.

Usage : his recent visit to Britain.

9.Deception(verb) : हाल का

Meaning : having happened, begun, or been done not long ago; belonging to a past period comparatively close to the present.

Synonyms : new, the latest, late, current, fresh, modern, contemporary, present-day, up to date, up to the minute, latter-day, latter; rareneoteric.

Antonyms : frankness,honesty,honor,openness, trustworthiness,truth, truthfulness, uprightness.

Usage : his recent visit to Britain.

10.Fudge(adjective) : ठगना

Meaning : an attempt to fudge an issue.

Synonyms : compromise, cover-up, halfway house; equivocation, spin, casuistry, sophistry, speciousness; informalcop-out.

Antonyms : tell truth.

Usage : the new settlement is a fudge rushed out to win cheers at the conference.