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English Questions: Cloze Test Set – 156

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There will also be more pollution-related illness. New cases of (1) in children aged 6-12 are forecast to soar to 36 million per year by 2060, from 12 million today. For adults, we predict ten million new cases per year by 2060, up from 3.5 million today. Children are also being increasingly affected by asthma. All of this will translate into more pollution-related hospital admissions, projected to rise to 11 million in 2060, from 3.6 million in 2010.
These health problems will be concentrated in densely populated areas with high PM concentrations, especially cities in China and India. In per capita terms, mortality is also set to reach high levels in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus region, and other parts of Asia, such as South Korea, where aging populations are highly (2) to air pollution.
The impact of air pollution is often discussed in dollar terms. By 2060, 3.75 billion working days per year could be lost due to the adverse health effects of dirty air – what economists call the “disutility of illness.” The direct market impact of this pollution in terms of lower worker productivity, higher health spending, and lower crop yields, could exceed 1% of GDP, or $2.6 trillion, annually by 2060.
Massive as they are, however, the dollar figures do not reflect the true costs of air pollution. Premature deaths from breathing in small (3) and toxic gases, and the pain and suffering from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, do not have a market price. Nor does the experience of constantly inhaling foul-smelling air, or forcing your child to wear a face mask just to play outside. These burdens weigh far more (4) on people than any price tag can (5).

  1. 1) flourishing
    2) fresh
    3) bronchitis
    4) great
    5) hale
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation : bronchitis

  2. 1) domishing
    2) secure
    3) protected
    4) vulnerable
    5) guarded
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation : vulnerable

  3. 1) particles
    2) fine
    3) elements
    4) evident
    5) frivolous
    Answer – 1)
    Explanation : particles

  4. 1) clammily
    2) heavily
    3) gently
    4) lightly
    5) calmly
    Answer – 2)
    Explanation : heavily

  5. 1) presented
    2) indicates
    3) represent
    4) presence
    5) shows
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation : represent

    Developing countries are facing major obstacles – many of which they have little to no control over – to achieving sustained high growth. Beyond the headwinds generated by slow advanced-economy growth and (6) post-crisis monetary and financial conditions, there are the disruptive impacts of digital technology, which are set to erode developing economies’ (7) advantage in labor-intensive manufacturing activities. With the reversal of these trends out of the question, (8) is the only option.
    Robotics has already made significant inroads in electronics (9) , with sewing trades, traditionally many countries’ first entry point to the global trading system, likely to come next. As this trend continues, the (10) to build supply chains based on the location of relatively immobile and cost-effective labor will wane, with production moving closer to the final market. Adidas, for example, is already building a factory in Germany, where robots will produce high-end athletic shoes, and is planning a second one in the United States.

  6. 1) standard
    2) straight
    3) abnormal
    4) customary
    5) normal
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation : abnormal

  7. 1) distant
    2) divergent
    3) weird
    4) comparative
    5) variable
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation : comparative

  8. 1) decedent
    2) amend
    3) consistent
    4) unsuitability
    5) adaptation
    Answer – 5)
    Explanation : adaptation – the action or process of adapting or being adapted.

  9. 1) amendment
    2) assembly
    3) dispersal
    4) stoic
    5) scattering
    Answer – 2)
    Explanation : assembly

  10. 1) inessential
    2) voluntary
    3) retained
    4) volatile
    5) imperative
    Answer – 5)
    Explanation : imperative – of vital importance; crucial.