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English Questions – Cloze Test 231

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Some arguments advanced by those seeking the right to privacy, however, are troubling. It seems that for many, the right is basically against the state, and not so much the digital corporations. One hears propositions such as: unlike corporations the state is a (1) , corporations rely on private contracts for data access, providing data to them is voluntary, and so on.
A right is a (2) right only if it works in all situations, and for everyone. A right to free expression for an individual about her exploitation, for instance, is meaningless without actual availability of security that guarantees that private force cannot be used to (3) this right. The role of the state therefore is not just to (4) from preventing rightful free expression but also to actively ensure that private parties are not able to block it.
In the same manner, the role of the state in terms of the right to privacy in the digital age is not just to abstain from its violation. It is equally to ensure that private parties are not able to (5) such a right. The court must specifically direct the state to ensure this imperative.
The elephant in the room in current privacy discussions is the status of data as the central social and economic resource in the digital age. (6) the state from any substantial role with regard to society’s data resources without similarly (7) private corporations will lead to a future where corporations become the key organising actors for society, relegating the state to an extremely truncated role. Such a situation is especially (8) to the interests of weaker sections of society that depend on the state for justice and redistribution.
The state must retain an important part in the organisation of new social and economic structures, which requires it to play a significant role in the data ecosystem. The public sector will, for instance, need to manage some infrastructural social and economic databases above which the private sector can run a competitive economy. Some of these will be in the form of “data commons”, which will require a properly institutionalised (9) of the state. Citizens will also require the (10) of a public interest agency to enable management of their personal data in a manner that they can obtain the best benefit of a data economy/society and its personalised services.

  1. 1) encircle
    2) embrace
    3) monopoly
    4) distribution
    5) scattering
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation: monopoly – the exclusive possession or control of the supply of or trade in a commodity or service.

  2. 1) joint-ownership
    2) sharing
    3) counterfeit
    4) fictitious
    5) substantive
    Answer – 5) 
    Explanation: substantive – having a firm basis in reality and so important, meaningful, or considerable.

  3. 1) thwart
    2) imaginary
    3) pretended
    4) encourage
    5) incorporate
    Answer – 1)
    Explanation: thwart – prevent (someone) from accomplishing something.

  4. 1) admit
    2) nonprofit
    3) forward
    4) Excluding
    5) legendary
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation: Excluding – not taking someone or something into account; except.

  5. 1) violate
    2) profitless
    3) unsuccessful
    4) acquiesce

    5) accept

    Answer – 1)
    Explanation: violate – break or fail to comply with (a rule or formal agreement).

  6. 1) worthless
    2) include

    3) bidding

    4) Excluding
    5) knuckle

    Answer – 4) 
    Explanation: Excluding – not taking someone or something into account; except.

  7. 1) constraining
    2) protecting

    3) embrace

    4) submit
    5) concur

    Answer – 1)
    Explanation: constraining – compel or force (someone) to follow a particular course of action.

  8. 1) accede
    2) relieve

    3)  alleviate
    4)  execute
    5) threatening

    Answer – 5) 
    Explanation: threatening – having a hostile or deliberately frightening quality or manner.

  9. 1) assent
    2) adhere to
    3) comply
    4) stoppage
    5) stewardship
    Answer – 5) 
    Explanation: stewardship – the job of supervising or taking care of something, such as an organization or property.

  10. 1) abide by
    2) assistance
    3) observe
    4) surrender
    5) hindrance
    Answer – 2)
    Explanation: assistance – the action of helping someone by sharing work.