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English Questions: Cloze Test – 193

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  1. Universal basic income (UBI) schemes are getting a lot of attention these days. Of course, the idea – to provide all legal residents of a country a (1) sum of cash unconnected to work – is not new. The philosopher Thomas More advocated it back in the sixteenth century, and many others, including Milton Friedman on the right and John Kenneth Galbraith on the left, have promoted (2) of it over the years. But the idea has lately been gaining much more traction, with some regarding it as a solution to today’s technology-driven economic (3) . Can it work?
    The appeal of a UBI is rooted in three key features: it provides a basic social “floor” to all citizens; it lets people choose how to use that support; and it could help to (4) the bureaucracy on which many social-support programs depend. A UBI would also be totally “portable,” thereby helping citizens who change jobs frequently, cannot depend on a long-term employer for social insurance, or are self-employed.
    Viewing a UBI as a (5) means to limit poverty, many on the left have made it part of their program. Many libertarians like the concept, because it enables – (6) , requires – recipients to choose freely how to spend the money. Even very wealthy people sometimes support it, because it would enable them to go to bed knowing that their taxes had finally and efficiently (7) extreme poverty.
    The UBI concept also appeals to those who focus on how economic development can replace at least some of the in-kind aid that is now given to the poor. Already, various local social programs in Latin America contain elements of the UBI idea, though they are targeted at the poor and usually conditional on certain behavior, such as having children regularly attend school.
    But implementing a full-blown UBI would be difficult, not least because it would require answering a number of complex questions about goals and priorities. Perhaps the most obvious balancing act relates to how much money is actually delivered to each citizen (or legal resident).In the United States and Europe, a UBI of, say, $2,000 per year would not do much, except perhaps (8) the most extreme poverty, even if it was added to existing social-welfare programs. An UBI of $10,000 would make a real difference; but, depending on how many people qualify, that could cost as much as 10% or 15% of GDP – a huge fiscal outlay, particularly if it came on top of (9) social programs.
    Even with a significant increase in tax revenue, such a high basic income would have to be packaged with gradual reductions in some existing public spending – for example, on unemployment benefits, education, health, transportation, and housing – to be fiscally (10) . The system that would ultimately take shape would depend on how these components were balanced.

    1) irregular
    2) enormous
    3) particular
    4) standard
    5) different

    Answer – 4)
    Explanation : standard

  2. 1) espouse
    2) oneself to
    3) commence
    4) address
    5) variants
    Answer – 5)
    Explanation : variants

  3. 1)  endeavors
    2) disruptions
    3) acquired
    4) aggregations
    5) embraced
    Answer – 2)
    Explanation : disruptions

  4. 1) scatter
    2) append
    3) streamline
    4) decentralize
    5) annex
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation : streamline

  5. 1) attempted
    2) straightforward
    3) devious
    5) deceitful
    Answer – 2)
    Explanation : straightforward

  6. 1) fragile
    2) abandon
    3) vague
    4) dubitably
    5) indeed
    Answer – 5)
    Explanation : indeed

  7. 1) existed
    2) dispersed
    3) doubtedly
    4) eradicated
    5) alived
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation : eradicated

  8. 1) aggravate
    2) retain
    3) embrace
    4) alleviate
    5) magnify
    Answer – 4) 
    Explanation : alleviate

  9. 1) relinquishment
    2) relenting
    3) existing
    4) yielding
    5) renunciation
    Answer – 3) 
    Explanation : existing

  10. 1) feasible
    2) cessation
    3) capitulation
    4) acquiescence
    5) unreasonable
    [su _spoiler title=”Answer & Explanation” icon=”plus” style=”fancy”]Answer – 1)  
    Explanation : feasible[/spoiler]