Reasoning Questions: Statement and Assumptions (High level) Set 3

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Statement and Assumptions

Directions: Study the following information and answer the given questions.

  1. Statement: In communication, more should happen in less.
    Assumptions:
    I. The more you talk, the less you communicate.
    II. The process of communication is never complete.
    1) If only assumption I is implicit.
    2) If only assumption II is implicit.
    3) If either I or II is implicit.
    4) If neither I nor II is implicit.
    5) If both I and II are implicit.
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4) If neither I nor II is implicit.
    Explanation:
    The statement implies that irrespective of the situation in which a crime is committed, a crime should always be treated as a crime. It is not implicit in either of the assumptions.
  2. Statement: Dancing on the edge of the volcano is the most beautiful metaphor I know for ‘risk’.
    Assumptions:
    I. Having the courage to take risk is the greatest motivation to dance.
    II. Taking a risk is as dangerous as dancing on the edge of a volcano.
    1) If only assumption I is implicit.
    2) If only assumption II is implicit.
    3) If either I or II is implicit.
    4) If neither I nor II is implicit.
    5) If both I and II are implicit.
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 2) If only assumption II is implicit.
    Explanation:
    Assumption II can be easily derived from the statement. It actually means that if one takes risk, it’s as good as dancing on the edge of a volcano.
  3. Statement: Success of economic policy in India has to be judged by its success on the poverty front.
    Assumptions:
    I. Success of the economic policy is determined by the level of poverty in the country.
    II. Economic policy for India should be formulated keeping in mind the state of the poor people.
    1) If only assumption I is implicit.
    2) If only assumption II is implicit.
    3) If either I or II is implicit.
    4) If neither I nor II is implicit.
    5) If both I and II are implicit.
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 5) If both I and II are implicit.
    Explanation:
    The statement implies that level of poverty shows how much the economic policy has been successful. Hence, assumption I is implicit. According to the main statement, success on the poverty front is measure of the success of an economic policy. So, it is assured that economic policy should be formulated considering the condition of poor people. It should work towards alleviating poverty. Therefore both I and II are implicit.
  4. Statement: A lie, which by its delivery blocks the emotional distress of the recipient, is justified.
    Assumptions:
    I. It is possible that one can alleviate another’s stress be lying about the truth.
    II. One of the ways to always justify a lie is to view it as bringing relief to a disturbed person.
    1) If only assumption I is implicit.
    2) If only assumption II is implicit.
    3) If either I or II is implicit.
    4) If neither I nor II is implicit.
    5) If both I and II are implicit.
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1) If only assumption I is implicit.
    Explanation:
    A lie about a truth can ease another person’s stress under certain circumstances. But, that in no way gives a person the right to always tell a lie or look for an opportunity to lie, if it can be justified. Hence, only assumption I is implicit.
  5. Statement: Wind is an inexhaustible source of energy.
    Assumptions:
    I. Wind is one of the many sources of energy.
    II. Wind is a source of energy which can be used forever.
    1) If only assumption I is implicit.
    2) If only assumption II is implicit.
    3) If either I or II is implicit.
    4) If neither I nor II is implicit.
    5) If both I and II are implicit.
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 2) If only assumption II is implicit.
    Explanation:
    Assumption I is not implicit because wind might be the only source of energy. Assumption II can be easily derived from the statement. “Inexhaustible” means incapable of being used entirely.
  6. Statement: Despite heavy rain, telephone services were not disrupted this year.
    Assumptions:
    I. Heavy rain normally affects telephone services.
    II. Telephone services get disrupted only in rainy season.
    1) If only assumption I is implicit.
    2) If only assumption II is implicit.
    3) If either I or II is implicit.
    4) If neither I nor II is implicit.
    5) If both I and II are implicit.
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1) If only assumption I is implicit.
    Explanation:
    From assumption I it concludes that heavy rain normally affects telephone services. It is not given in the statement that telephone services are disrupted only in rainy season. So only assumption I is implicit.
  7. Statement: If you have any problems, consult the teacher.
    Assumptions:
    I. You have some problems.
    II. The teacher can solve any problem.
    1) If only assumption I is implicit.
    2) If only assumption II is implicit.
    3) If either I or II is implicit.
    4) If neither I nor II is implicit.
    5) If both I and II are implicit.
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4) If neither I nor II is implicit.
    Explanation:
    The word ‘if’ indicates that the ‘you’ does not necessarily have problems but in case he/she has any, he/she can consult the teacher. Hence, I is not implicit. Assumption II is not implicit because the statement does not tell us anywhere that any problem can be solved by the teacher, it merely asks to consult the teacher in case there is one. Hence, assumption II is not implicit.
  8. Statement: Most people who stop consuming alcohol gain weight.
    Assumption:
    I. If one consumes alcohol, one will lose weight.
    II. If one does not stop consuming alcohol, one will not gain weight.
    1) If only assumption I is implicit.
    2) If only assumption II is implicit.
    3) If either I or II is implicit.
    4) If neither I nor II is implicit.
    5) If both I and II are implicit.
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4) If neither I nor II is implicit.
    Explanation:
    The given statement mentions ‘most people’. A generalised statement like in assumption I and II cannot be made because a specific statement cannot be universalised. Moreover, the given statement talks about the after effects of discontinuing the consumption of alcohol. So it is quite difficult to assume what are the effects of consuming alcohol. Hence I is not implicit in the statement. Additionally, it cannot be assumed from the given statement that terminating the consumption of alcohol is the only criterion to gain wait. Also, the given sentence is least concerned about what happens if one does not stop consuming alcohol. So, any assumption in this regard cannot be made. Thus, II is also not implicit. .
  9. Statement: In spite of the bad quality of food, employees have not complained.
    Assumptions:
    I. Generally people complain.
    II. Complaints improve quality.
    1) If only assumption I is implicit.
    2) If only assumption II is implicit.
    3) If either I or II is implicit.
    4) If neither I nor II is implicit.
    5) If both I and II are implicit.
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1) If only assumption I is implicit.
    Explanation:
    Effect of complaints cannot be assumed as nothing is given about time frames or consequences in the statement. So assumption II is not implicit. The words ‘in spite of… people have not complained’ tells us that this contrary to norm. Thus generally people must complain. Hence assumption I is implicit.
  10. Statement: “To stop train pull chain. Penalty for use without reasonable and sufficient cause is fine up to Rs. 1,000 and / or imprisonment up to one year.”
    Assumptions:
    I. A few persons are naughty.
    II. People travelling in the train want to stop the running train in case of emergency.
    1) If only assumption I is implicit.
    2) If only assumption II is implicit.
    3) If either I or II is implicit.
    4) If neither I nor II is implicit.
    5) If both I and II are implicit.
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 5) If both I and II are implicit.
    Explanation:
    Let us consider the first statement. In the sentence it is given that ‘use without reasonable and sufficient cause’. This indicates that it is implied that some ‘people are naughty’ and these people pull the chain without sufficient cause. Also, the chain is meant for stopping the train in case of an emergency so it is assumed that everyone would ‘want’ to stop the train.