United Nations(UN)’s International Migrants Day is annually observed across the globe on 18th December to create awareness about the important contribution of migrants while highlighting the challenges they face.
On the occasion of International Migrants Day, The UN Migration agency – International Organization for Migration(IOM) reaffirms its commitment to promoting a humane and orderly management of migration for the benefit of all, including the communities of origin, transit, and destination.
The United Nations General Assembly(UNGA) adopted the resolution A/RES/55/93 on 4th December 2000 and proclaimed the 18th December of every year as International Migrants Day.
Why December 18?
The day(18th December) marks the day on which the UNGA adopted the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families in 1990.
i.According to IOM, a Migrant is defined as a person who is moving or has moved across an international border or within a state away from their habitual place of residence, regardless of
- the person’s legal status
- whether the movement is voluntary or involuntary
- what the causes for the movement are
- what the length of the stay is.
ii.Migrants and displaced people represent the most vulnerable and marginalized groups in society.
i.In 2020 over 281 million people were international migrants which equates to 3.6 per cent of the global population and over 59 million people were internally displaced by the end of 2021.
ii.Around 1 in every 8th person in the world is a migrant or is moving likely due to growing conflicts, persecution, environmental degradation and climate change.
Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM):
i.GCM offers an opportunity and guidance to actualize human mobility and seize the opportunities it presents.
ii.GCM is an effective tool for States to discuss how best to address challenges to human mobility without compromising the human rights of people and states’ sovereignty.
UN & Migrants:
UNGA hosted a high-level summit in September 2016, to address large movements of refugees and migrants, with the aim of uniting the nations for a more humane and coordinated approach.
This was the first time the UNGA has called for a summit at the Heads of State and Government level on large movements of refugees and migrants.
Reports on Migrants & Migration:
IOM’s World Migration Report 2022:
World Migration Report 2022 is the 11th in the world migration report series which presents key data and information on migration as well as thematic chapters on highly topical migration issues.
- The World Migration Report is a flagship report of IOM which is published every 2 years.
i.With nearly 18 million people living abroad, India has the largest emigrant population in the world, making it the top origin country globally.
- Mexico(around 11 million) is the 2nd most significant origin country followed by Russian Federation(10.8 million) and China(10 million)
- In 2020, India, China, Mexico, the Philippines and Egypt were (in descending order) the top five remittance recipient countries.
ii.The total inward remittances of India and China were exceeding USD 83 billion and USD 59 billion, respectively.
iii.United States of America(USA) has been the top remittance-sending country, with a total outflow of USD 68 billion in 2020, followed by the United Arab Emirates(UAE) (USD 43.2 billion), Saudi Arabia (USD 34.6 billion), Switzerland (USD 27.96 billion), and Germany (USD 22 billion).
WHO’s World report on the health of refugees and migrants:
In July 2022, World Health Organization (WHO) launched the “World report on the health of refugees and migrants”, a first-of-its-kind report to offer a global review of refugee and migrant health.
The report presents the global evidence available on the health challenges faced by refugees and migrants along their journeys and in the host country.
About International Organization for Migration(IOM):
IOM was first established as the Provisional Intergovernmental Committee for the Movement of Migrants from Europe (PICMME) in 1951 and was renamed as International Organization for Migration(IOM) in 1980(after a series of name change).
Director General– António Vitorino
Headquarters– Geneva, Switzerland