some difficult words from editorials , which is important and very helpful for IBPS PO/CLERK/LIC AAO/RRB & SSC CGL EXAM and other exams !!!

The Hindu: Rupee rout: on the Indian currency’s slide

India’s macroeconomic threats lie exposed as it grapples with the rupee’s slide. The currency sunk to a closing low of 68.07 against the U.S. dollar on Tuesday, its lowest level in 16 months, before recovering slightly the next day. The rupee, already one of the worst performing Asian currencies, has now weakened 6.2% in 2018. The rise in crude oil prices through this year, amidst rising geopolitical tensions in West Asia and dwindling global supply, have obviously hurt the rupee and the trade balance. Meanwhile, despite a depreciating currency, India’s merchandise exports are stumbling instead of gaining from the opportunity. April clocked a sharp decline in exports from employment-intensive sectors such as readymade garments and gems and jewellery, according to official data. The trade deficit has consequently widened to $13.7 billion in April, compared to $13.25 billion in the same month in 2017. The value of oil and petroleum product imports increased by 41.5% from last year to hit $10.4 billion. U.S. sanctions following Washington’s withdrawal from the Iran nuclear deal and a June 22 meeting of OPEC should drive oil price trends hereon. Oil prices apart, the tightening of U.S. monetary policy has almost always spelled trouble for emerging market economies hooked to Western capital inflows. This time it is no different; capital outflows are scuppering the currencies of many emerging market economies.
As the U.S. Federal Reserve has come to adopt a more hawkish stance, investors in search of higher risk-adjusted yields have started to pull money out of emerging markets. Yields on emerging market bonds have risen as investors sold them off aggressively. The yield on the 10-year bond issued by the Indian government has risen to more than 7.8%, from 7.1% in early April. Foreign portfolio investors (FPIs) pulled out ₹15,500 crore from India’s capital markets in April, which is the highest monthly outflow since December 2016. Not surprisingly, about two-thirds of the outflow was attributed to the bond market. The current headwinds from the reversal of capital flows were only to be expected. India is better placed than countries such as Argentina or Turkey. But that’s no reason to be complacent as external account risks can get out of hand very quickly. A hike in the RBI’s benchmark interest rates could stem the capital exodus, but with core inflation picking up and the government keen on a rate cut as a growth catalyst, the RBI has an unenviable dilemma on its hands. Policymakers, blessed with relatively benign external economic conditions after the taper tantrum of 2013, will have to find means to spur exports — whether by facilitating swifter GST refunds or taking on tariff and non-tariff barriers from the developed world. Efforts to diversify India’s energy basket also need greater stress.

1. Grapples (verb) : पकड़ना

Meaning : engage in a close fight or struggle without weapons; wrestle.

Synonyms : wrestle, struggle, tussle; brawl, fight, scuffle, clash, combat, battle; close, engage.

Antonyms : let go,release.

Usage : passers-by grappled with the man after the knife attack.

2. Depreciating (verb) : अपकर्ष

Meaning : diminish in value over a period of time.

Synonyms : decrease in value, lose value, decline in price, drop in price, fall in price, cheapen, devalue.

Antonyms : appreciate, apprize, apprise.

Usage : these cars will depreciate heavily in the first year.

3. Stumbling (adjective) : ठोकर

Meaning : tripping or losing balance while walking; moving with difficulty.

Synonyms : trip, trip over, trip up, lose one’s balance, lose/miss one’s footing, founder, slip, pitch.

Antonyms : adroit, artful, dexterous, elegant, graceful, handy, skillful.

Usage : they began their stumbling walk home.

4. Hooked (adjectiove) : कांटे की शकल का

Meaning : curved like a hook.

Synonyms : curved, hook-shaped, hook-like, aquiline, bent, bowed, angular; technicalfalcate, falciform, uncinate.

Antonyms : unhook.

Usage : he had a hooked nose.

5. Stance (noun) : मुद्रा

Meaning : the way in which someone stands, especially when deliberately adopted (as in cricket, golf, and other sports); a person’s posture.

Synonyms : posture, body position, pose, attitude, bearing.

Antonyms : movement.

Usage : she altered her stance, resting all her weight on one leg.

6. Swifter (Swift) (adjective) : तेज

Meaning : happening quickly or promptly.

Synonyms : prompt, rapid, sudden, immediate, instant, instantaneous, without delay, ready, punctual; abrupt, unhesitating, hasty, hurried, precipitate, headlong.

Antonyms : movement.

Usage : Ramsay made a swift decision.

7. Attributed (verb) : गुण

Meaning : regard something as being caused by.

Synonyms : ascribe, assign, accredit, credit, impute, allot, allocate.

Antonyms : calm, contentment, peace.

Usage : he attributed the firm’s success to the efforts of the managing director.

8. Dilemma (noun) : दुविधा

Meaning : a situation in which a difficult choice has to be made between two or more alternatives, especially ones that are equally undesirable.

Synonyms : quandary, predicament, difficulty, problem, puzzle, conundrum, awkward situation, tricky situation, difficult situation, difficult choice, catch-22, vicious circle, plight, mess, muddle; trouble, perplexity, confusion.

Antonyms : absolve, exculpate, exonerate, praise, vindicate.

Usage : a discussion with a colleague resolved her dilemma.

9. Benign (adjective) : सौम्य

Meaning : gentle and kind.

Synonyms : kindly, kind, warm-hearted, good-natured, friendly, warm, affectionate, agreeable, amiable, good-humoured, genial, congenial, cordial, approachable, tender, tender-hearted, soft-hearted, gentle, sympathetic, compassionate, caring, considerate, thoughtful, helpful, well disposed, obliging, accommodating, generous, big-hearted, unselfish, benevolent, gracious, liberal.

Antonyms : absolve, exculpate, exonerate, praise, vindicate.

Usage : he adopted a benign grandfatherly role.

10. Tantrum (Noun) : गुस्से का आवेश

Meaning : an uncontrolled outburst of anger and frustration, typically in a young child.

Synonyms : fit of temper, fit of rage, fit of pique, fit, outburst, flare-up, blow-up, pet, paroxysm, frenzy, bad mood, mood, huff, scene.

Antonyms : calm, contentment, peace.

Usage : he has temper tantrums if he can’t get his own way.

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