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English Questions: Vocabulary Set 275

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some difficult words from editorials , which is important and very helpful for IBPS PO/CLERK/LIC AAO/RRB & SSC CGL EXAM and other exams !!!

The Hindu: Curbing misuse: on SC ruling on the anti-atrocities law  

Will laying down procedural safeguards to curb false accusations work against the interest of protecting the oppressed from discrimination and caste-based atrocities? This is the salient question that arises from the Supreme Court verdict that has taken note of the perception that the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989, is being rampantly misused to settle personal scores and harass adversaries. On the face of it, it is difficult to fault the court’s approach. It is settled law that the mere scope for misuse of an Act is not a ground to invalidate it. Constitution courts seek to preserve the spirit of such legislation on the one hand and to evolve guidelines to prevent its misuse on the other. This is precisely what the two-judge bench has aimed to do. It has ruled that Section 18, which bars grant of anticipatory bail to anyone accused of violating its provisions, is not an absolute bar on giving advance bail to those against whom, prima facie, there is no case. In addition, the Bench has prohibited the arrest of anyone merely because of a complaint that they had committed an atrocity against a Dalit or a tribal person. In respect of public servants, no arrest should be made without the written permission of the official’s appointing authority; and for private citizens, the Senior Superintendent of Police in the district should approve the arrest.
In doing this, the Supreme Court has sought to strike a balance between protecting individual liberty and preserving the spirit of a law in favour of oppressed sections. Without any doubt, atrocities against Dalits are a grim social reality, necessitating a stringent law to combat it. The Act was amended in 2015 to cover newer forms of discrimination and crimes against Dalits and tribals to add teeth to it. It is true that conviction rates under the Act remain low. The lackadaisical approach of investigators and prosecutors to bring home charges against perpetrators of such crimes among the dominant castes is reflected in statistics. Even if courts are right in taking note of the tendency to misuse this law, society and lawmakers must be justifiably worried about the sort of messaging contained in their rulings and observations. In an ideal system, as long as every charge is judicially scrutinised and every investigation or prosecution is fair and honest, one need not worry about misuse and its adverse effects. However, social realities are far from being ideal. It ought to concern us all, including the courts, that some laws designed to protect the weakest and most disempowered people do not lose their teeth. Words of caution and rules against misuse may be needed to grant relief to the innocent. But nothing should be done to de-fang the law itself.

1. Procedural (adjective) : प्रक्रियात्मक

Meaning : relating to an established or official way of doing something.

Synonyms : crime drama.

Antonyms : substantive.

Usage : the developers had complied with all the relevant procedural requirements.

2. Salient (adjective) : मुख्य

Meaning : most noticeable or important.

Synonyms : important, main, principal, major, chief, primary, notable, noteworthy, outstanding, arresting, conspicuous, striking, noticeable, obvious, remarkable, signal, prominent, pronounced.

Antonyms : inconspicuous, unimportant, unnoticeable.

Usage : it succinctly covered all the salient points of the case.

3. Harass (verb) : परेशान

Meaning : subject to aggressive pressure or intimidation.

Synonyms : pester, badger, hound, harry, plague, torment, bedevil, persecute, bother, annoy, exasperate, worry, disturb, trouble, agitate, provoke, vex; stress, stress out, nag, keep on at, chivvy; tease, bait, molest.

Antonyms : aid, assist, facilitate, help, support.

Usage : if someone is being harassed at work because of their sexuality they should contact the police.

4. Evolve (verb) : विकसित करना

Meaning : develop gradually.

Synonyms : develop, progress, make progress, advance, move forward, make headway, mature, grow, open out, unfold, unroll, expand, enlarge, spread, extend; alter, change, transform, adapt, metamorphose, differentiate; humoroustransmogrify.

Antonyms : block,decrease,halt,stop.

Usage : the company has evolved into a major chemical manufacturer.

5. Anticipatory (adjective) : अग्रिम

Meaning : happening, performed, or felt in anticipation of something.

Synonyms : anticipant, anticipating, anticipative, awaiting, expecting, hopeful.

Antonyms : later.

Usage : an anticipatory flash of excitement.

6. Atrocity (noun) : क्रूरता

Meaning : an extremely wicked or cruel act, typically one involving physical violence or injury.

Synonyms : ct of barbarity, act of brutality, act of savagery, act of wickedness, cruelty, abomination, enormity, outrage, horror, monstrosity, obscenity, iniquity, violation, crime, transgression, wrong, wrongdoing, offence, injury, affront, scandal, injustice, abuse; malfeasance, tort.

Antonyms : good behavior, pleasantry.

Usage : press reports detailed a number of atrocities.

7. Oppressed (adjective) : ज़ुल्म किया हुआ

Meaning : subject to harsh and authoritarian treatment.

Antonyms : happy, pleased.

Usage : oppressed racial minorities.

8. Combat (noun) : युद्ध

Meaning : fighting between armed forces.

Synonyms : battle, fighting, action, hostilities, conflict, armed conflict, war, warfare, bloodshed.

Antonyms : accord, compromise, peace, retreat, surrender, truce.

Usage : five Hurricanes were shot down in combat.

9. Lackadaisical (noun) : भावुक

Meaning: lacking enthusiasm and determination; carelessly lazy.

Synonyms : careless, lazy, lax, unenthusiastic, half-hearted, uninterested, lukewarm, indifferent, uncaring, unconcerned, casual, offhand, blasé, insouciant, leisurely, relaxed; apathetic, languid, languorous, lethargic, limp, listless, sluggish, enervated, spiritless, aimless, bloodless, torpid, passionless, idle, indolent, shiftless, inert, impassive, feeble.

Antonyms : active, careful, caring, energetic, enthusiastic, hard-working.

Usage : a lackadaisical defence left Spurs adrift in the second half.

10. Perpetrators (Noun) : अपराधियों

Meaning : a person who carries out a harmful, illegal, or immoral act.

Synonyms : assassin, butcher, criminal, cutthroat, enforcer, executioner, hit person, hit-and-run, homicide, killer, manslaughterer, perpetrator, slaughterer, slayer, soldier, trigger person.

Antonyms : law-abiding citizen.

Usage : the perpetrators of this horrific crime must be brought to justice.