Global Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDDs) Prevention Day which is also known as World Iodine Deficiency Day is annually observed on October 21st to create awareness about the importance of iodine for normal thyroid functions, growth and development.
Importance of iodine:
i.Iodine is one of the essential micronutrients that is needed for the production of Thyroid hormone.
ii.The inclusion of iodine as a part of the diet is important since the body cannot make iodine on its own.
iii.Therefore the iodine deficiency can lead to enlargement of the thyroid, hypothyroidism and to intellectual disabilities in infants and children whose mothers were iodine deficient during pregnancy.
iv.The severe forms of IDDs can cause cretinism, stillbirth and miscarriage
Efforts of India to prevent IDD:
i.Iodised salt was introduced in India in the late 1950s and various governmental and non-governmental programs and initiatives were undertaken to create awareness about the importance of iodised salt.
ii.Under the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act 1954, The government of India has banned the sale of non-iodized salt for direct human consumption in India, with effect from May 2006.
In 1962, the government of India launched National Goitre Control Programme (NGCP) which was renamed as National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme (NIDDCP) in1992.
Goal of NIDDCP:
- To bring the prevalence of IDD to below 5% in the country.
- To ensure 100% consumption of adequately iodized salt (15ppm) at the household level.
i.Around 90% of the global population is consuming salt with iodine, even though just 23 countries with recent data had a coverage of 90% or higher.
ii.According to the World Health Organisation(WHO) guidelines, a daily intake of 150 micrograms is required to prevent IDD.