AffairsCloud brings you the complete and important daily Current Affairs 8 & 9 November 2020 Quiz to achieve more marks in Banking, Insurance, UPSC, SSC, CLAT, Railways and all other competitive Exams. We have prepared the current affairs quiz question from our daily current affairs 2020 updates.
- Where has been India’s first solar-based Integrated Multi-Village Water Supply Project (IMVWSP) inaugurated?
4) Arunachal Pradesh
5) Andhra Pradesh
Answer-4) Arunachal Pradesh
Gajendra Singh Shekhawat, Union Minister of Jal Shakti inaugurated India’s first solar-based Integrated Multi-Village Water Supply Project (IMVWSP) in Lower Dibang Valley district in northeastern Arunachal Pradesh. This project will provide drinking water needs for 39 villages (approximately 17,480 people) in the district. The solar-based lift water supply project was commissioned at a cost of Rs 28.50 crore.
- Which High Court has become first High Court in India to live stream its judicial proceedings on YouTube channel?
1) Madras High Court, Tamil Nadu
2) Tripura High Court
3) Patna High Court, Bihar
4) Bombay High Court, Maharashtra
5) Gujarat High Court
Answer-5) Gujarat High Court
The Gujarat High Court became the first high court to live stream judicial proceedings on YouTube channel. This is to increase the access to courts, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. The live stream also aims to broaden the implementation of the open court concept even for virtual hearings. 1,500 viewers were watching the proceeding on the day of live streaming.
- Which Metro Rail Corporation has introduced “Pride Station” dedicated to the transgender community, a first for Metro services in northern India?
1) Delhi Metro Rail Corporation
2) Noida Metro Rail Corporation
3) Luchnow Metro Rail Corporation
4) Kanpur Metro Rail Corporation
5) Uttarakhand Metro Rail Corporation
Answer-2) Noida Metro Rail Corporation
The Noida Metro Rail Corporation (NMRC) on October 27, 2020 officially renamed one of its stations here as “Pride Station” dedicated to the transgender community, a first for Metro services in northern India. According to the NMRC, which operates the Metro between the twin cities of Noida and Greater Noida in western UP, it is a first-of-its-kind initiative introduced by a Metro network in northern India. “This step has been taken by the NMRC for the inclusion and meaningful participation of the members of the transgender community. As per Census 2011, there are 4.9 lakh transgenders in India, out of whom around 35,000 are staying in NCR. The initiative was inspired by the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019, passed by the Centre for the protection of the rights of the transgender people and working towards their welfare, it added.
- Name the service/s created by The INTERPOL (International Criminal Police Organization) to facilitate cybercrime related communication among law enforcement agencies for effective action.
1) Cybercrime Knowledge Exchange (CKE) workspace
2) Cybercrime Collaborative Platform-Operation
3) Cybercrime Related Information Management (CRIM)
4) Only 1 & 2
5) All 1, 2 & 3
Answer-4) Only 1 & 2
The International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) has created two secure and flexible services to facilitate cybercrime related communication among law enforcement agencies and other stakeholders to ensure more effective and coordinated action based on timely intelligence.
These are as follows:
Cybercrime Knowledge Exchange (CKE) workspace: It handles general, non-police information and is open to all relevant users globally.
Cybercrime Collaborative Platform-Operation: The first of its kind, it assists in the law enforcement operations, with access restricted to the operational stakeholders only.
The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is the nodal agency in the Interpol for India.
- Which State launched ‘Parivarthanam’ scheme for fishers and also signed a MoU with ICAR-CIBA (Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture) to increase brackish water fish production?
1) Tamil Nadu
3) Andhra Pradesh
5) West Bengal
Kerala Fisheries Minister, J. Mercykutty Amma inaugurated ‘Parivarthanam’ scheme which aims to improve the livelihood skills of youngsters along the coastline and improve their socio-economic condition of fishers.
ICAR-CIBA (Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Agency for Development of Aquaculture Kerala (ADAK) to set up a multi-species fish hatchery at Odayam in Thiruvananthapuram district to increase brackish water fish production in Kerala.
- Indian Army Chief General MM Naravane visited ____________ (November, 2020) to strengthen overall ties including in areas of defence and security.
5) Sri Lanka
Indian Army Chief General MM Naravane visited Nepal from November 4-6, 2020 to strengthen overall ties including in areas of defence and security between India and Nepal. He visited Nepal at the official invitation of Nepal Army Chief Purna Chandra Thapa.
General MM Naravane was accompanied by his wife Veena Naravane, who is the chairperson of the Army Wives Welfare Association (AWWA) of the Indian Army. They were received by Chief of General Staff, Lieutenant General Prabhu Ram of Nepal upon arrival at the Tribhuvan International Airport.
- Which Bank has extended two loans totaling 545 Million Euros (~ INR 4, 767 crore) to the Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) for infrastructure projects in Mumbai?
1) European Central Bank
2) European Investment Bank
3) KfW Bank
4) Asian Development Bank
5) World Bank
Answer-3) KfW Bank
On November 6, 2020, Frankfurt-based German state-owned development bank KfW (formerly KfW Bankengruppe) extended two loans totaling 545 Million Euros (~ INR 4, 767 crore) to the Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) for infrastructure projects in Mumbai. The package consists of a development loan of 345 million Euros and a promotional loan of 200 million Euros. The approved loan amount is the highest amount given to India including the lowest rate of interest offered by any financial institution so far. The funds will be disbursed through an agreement with the Ministry of Finance, Government of India.
- What is the new category introduced by SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India) under equity schemes?
1) Growth Fund
2) Flexi Cap Fund
3) Sector Fund
4) Small Cap Fund
Answer-2) Flexi Cap Fund
In order to give more flexibility to the mutual funds, Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) introduced ‘Flexi Cap Fund’ as a New Category under Equity Schemes.
The aim is to protect the interests of investors in securities, to promote growth and to regulate the securities market.
SEBI has also made it mandatory that all the open ended debt schemes, except Overnight Fund, Liquid Fund, Gilt Fund and Gilt Fund with 10 year constant duration to hold at least 10% of their net assets in liquid assets. On the basis of the recommendations of MFAC, SEBI has decided to conduct stress testing for all the open ended debt schemes (except overnight scheme).
- What is the revenue target of HIL (India) Limited (formerly known as Hindustan Insecticides Limited) a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) under Department of Chemicals and Fertilizers for current Financial Year (2020-21)?
1) 200 crores
2) 251 Crores
3) 400 crores
4) 451 crores
5) 500 crores
Answer-4) 451 crores
HIL (India) Limited (formerly known as Hindustan Insecticides Limited) a Public sector undertakings(PSU) under Department of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals (DCPC) to achieve the revenue target of INR 451 Crore in the current Financial Year (2020-21).
The MoU was signed by SP Mohanty, HIL (India) Limited’s Chairman and Managing Director (CMD) and Rajesh Kumar Chaturvedi, Secretary of DCPC.
- Name the e-commerce company which partnered with SBI YONO Krishi App for easy availability of Quality Agri-products in India.
3) IFFCO Bazar
Answer-3) IFFCO Bazar
IFFCO Bazar, e-commerce wing of IFFCO (Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative) has entered into partnership with SBI (State Bank of India) YONO (You Only Need One) Krishi App.
Aim of the Partnership:
To boost the accessibility of Quality Agri-products in India, To ensure that a wide range of agricultural products are accessible to many Indian farmers and To drive digital sales in this segment, with combination of easy and free payment portal of SBI YONO and quality products of IFFCO.
- Who has been appointed as Chief Information Commissioner of Central Information Commission, India?
1) Bimal Julka
2) Sunil Arora
3) Yashvardhan Kumar Sinha
4) Shashi S. Vempati
5) M M Kutty
Answer-3) Yashvardhan Kumar Sinha
Ram Nath Govind, President of India administered the “Oath of Office” for Yashvardhan Kumar Sinha (62 years), former Diplomat as the Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) in the Central Information Commission. The “Oath of Office” ceremony was held at Rashtrapati Bhavan, New Delhi. He succeeds Bimal Julka who completed his term as CIC in August 2020. Sinha will serve as CIC for a term of 3 years. (CIC and Information commissioners are appointed for tenure of 5 years or until the age of 65 years).
- Name the Indian diplomat who has been selected to the UN (United Nations)’s Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions (ACABQ).
1) Priyanca Radhakrishnan
2) Kamala Harris
3) Pramila Jayapal
4) Hiral Tipirneni
5) Vidisha Maitra
Answer-5) Vidisha Maitra
Indian diplomat Vidisha Maitra was elected to the Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions (ACABQ), a key UN (United Nations) committee. She won the election with 126 UN members supporting her candidature, the opposing party got 64 votes. The committee recommended her to the Assembly for a 3 year term beginning January 1, 2021.
Vidisha Maitra was the candidate of India for the only post in the committee from the Asia Pacific Group, and the other candidate was Ali Mohammed Faeq Al-Dabag from Iraq.
Note-It is to be noted that India has been a member of the committee since its inception in 1946.
- Name the 2 stage challenge for women led startups which provided solutions to address the issues faced by women. (Organized by MyGov in collaboration with United Nations (UN) Women).
1) COVID-19 Nari Shakti Challenge
2) COVID-19 Mahila Shakti Challenge
3) COVID-19 Shri Shakti Challenge
4) COVID-19 Shashakt Nari Challenge
5) COVID-19 Aadi Shakti Challenge
Answer-3) COVID-19 Shri Shakti Challenge
Six Women led startups won the COVID-19 Shri Shakti Challenge organised by MyGov in collaboration with United Nations (UN) Women. The challenge was hosted on the Innovate platform of MyGov. The 2 stage challenge (Ideation stage and Proof of Concept (PoC) Stage) called for the applications from women led startups which provided solutions to address the issues faced by women. The top 3 winners were Bengaluru-based Resada Lifesciences Private Limited led by Dr P Gayatri Hela, Shimla based iHeal HealthTech Private Limited led by Romita Ghosh and Kerala based Thanmatra Innovations Private Limited led by Dr Anjana Ramkumar and Dr Anushka Ashokan.Top 3 Startups identified as‘Promising Solutions’are: Bengaluru-based Seragen BioTherapeutics Private Limited led by Vasanthi Palanivel, Bengaluru-based Empathy Design Labs led by Shivi Kapil, STREAM Minds led by Jaya Parashar and Ankita Parashar.
- The first-ever virtual Indo-Africa Summit 2020, organized by IMC Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Nov 2020). What is India’s Trade & Investment target between India and Africa by 2025?
1) $ 150 Billion , $150 Billion
2) $ 200 Billion , $200 Billion
3) $ 50 Billion, $50 Billion
4) $ 10 Billion, $10 Billion
5) $100 Billion, $100 Billion
Answer-5) $100 Billion, $100 Billion
The first-ever virtual Indo-Africa Summit 2020, organized by IMC Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Indian Merchants’ Chamber) and Africa Business News (CNBC Africa), was held on November 4 to 6, 2020 which was addressed by Union Minister Piyush Vedprakash Goyal, Ministry of Commerce and Industry. India’s target is to enhance ties to 100*100 matrix by 2025, i.e. a target of USD 100 billion Bilateral Trade and USD 100 billion of Investment between India and Africa.
- Who attended the 4th Meeting of the India-Philippines Joint Commission 2020 on Bilateral Cooperation was held virtually (November 2020)?
1) S Jaishankar
2) Shaktikant Das
3) Narendra Modi
4) Nirmala Sitharaman
5) Rajnath Singh
Answer-1) S Jaishankar
The 4th Meeting of the India-Philippines Joint Commission 2020 on Bilateral Cooperation was held virtually on 06 November 2020 which was co-chaired by Union Minister Dr. Subrahmanyam Jaishankar, Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) and Teodoro Locsin Jr., Secretary, Department of Foreign Affairs of Republic of Philippines. The meet saw the discussions on matters of mutual importance and also reviewed the recent developments in India-Philippines bilateral relations. Both sides agreed to further strengthen defence engagement and maritime cooperation.
Indian side invited Filipino students, scholars and academicians to avail the ITEC (Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation) and e-ITEC initiatives, and make use of integrated PhD Fellowships offered to ASEAN students at IITs.
- An India-Italy virtual summit 2020 was held which was co-chaired by India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his counterpart. Who is the PM of Italy?
1) Jean Castex
2) Giuseppe Conte
3) Emmanuel Macron
4) Sergio Mattarella
5) Scott Morrison
Answer-2) Giuseppe Conte
An India-Italy virtual summit 2020 was held which was co-chaired by India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Prime Minister of Italy Prof. Giuseppe Conte. Both leaders reviewed the framework of bilateral relationship and also reaffirmed their commitment to strengthen cooperation against common global challenges, including the Covid-19 pandemic. The leaders discussed a wide range of issues including political, economic, scientific & technological, space and defence cooperation and also adopted ‘Action Plan for 2020-2024’ along with inking of 15 Memorandums of Understanding (MoU). It should be noted that Italy is all set to join the International Solar Alliance (ISA) following the amendment to the Framework Agreement allowing for the adhesion of non-Tropical countries which entered into force on July 15 2020.
- What was the theme of India-Nordic-Baltic Conclave 2020 organized by Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) (November 2020)?
1) Multilateralism after COVID19
2) An Innovation-driven Partnership for Growth in a New World
3) United against COVID-19
4) Evolving Warfare: An Insight into the Changing Realm
5) Today For Tomorrow
Answer-2) An Innovation-driven Partnership for Growth in a New World
On November 5, 2020, the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) virtually organized an India-Nordic-Baltic Conclave 2020 on the theme “An Innovation-driven Partnership for Growth in a New World”.
The Conclave focused on 11 sectors in which Nordic-Baltic region has expertise and India offers opportunity, provided a platform to connect with potential Indian partners and discuss business partnerships featuring B2B (business to business) sections. It was sponsored by Denmark’s shipping company MAERSK.
- Who co-chaired the 4th High-Level Meeting of the OPEC-India Dialogue from India through video conference (November 2020)?
1) S Jaishankar
2) Dharmendra Pradhan
3) Narendra Modi
4) Nirmala Sitharaman
5) Piyush Goyal
Answer-2) Dharmendra Pradhan
OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) Secretariat hosted the 4th High-Level Meeting of the OPEC-India Dialogue through video conference.
The meeting was co-chaired by Dharmendra Pradhan, Union Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas & Steel and Mohammad Sanusi Barkindo, Secretary General of OPEC.
Aim of the Meeting was to discuss about the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on both the world economy and energy markets including oil markets.
Note- This is the first meeting of this Institutional Dialogue since the start of COVID-19 pandemic.
- Election Commission of India (ECI) organised a 3-day International Virtual Election Visitors Programme for Foreign Election Management Bodies and Organizations. Who is the Chief Election Commissioner of the India?
1) Sushil Chandra
2) Rajiv Kumar
3) Sunil Arora
4) Om Prakash Rawat
5) T N Seshan
Answer-3) Sunil Arora
In the context of the ongoing Bihar Legislative Assembly Election, Election Commission of India (ECI) organised a three-day International Virtual Election Visitors Programme (from 5th November 2020 to 7th November 2020) for Foreign Election Management Bodies and Organizations. Delegates from around 40 countries along with International IDEA, International Foundation of Electoral Systems and Association of World Election Bodies participated in the programme. The session was addressed by Chief Election Commissioner Sunil Arora and Election Commissioners Rajiv Kumar and Sushil Chandra.
- Which state is the top performing state in terms of providing tap connections to a maximum proportion (69.56 per cent) of rural households?
5) Andhra Pradesh
Over 2.5 crore rural households have been provided tap connections under the Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) since it started in 2019, with Telangana and Bihar emerging as leading states, shows data available with the Jal Shakti Ministry. The JMM aims at providing a functional household tap connection to every rural household by 2024. Goa has become the first state in the country to provide a tap connection to all rural households.
Telangana is the top performing state in terms of providing tap connections to a maximum proportion (69.56 per cent) of rural households, providing about 38 lakh tap connections. Bihar, which is at second place, has covered 54.38 per cent of rural households, followed by Goa (24.3 per cent), Mizoram (23.19 per cent), Haryana (21.12 per cent), Manipur (20.78 per cent), Himachal Pradesh (19.99 per cent), Maharashtra (15.4 per cent), Uttarakhand (14.97 per cent), and J&K (14.94 per cent).
- Which edition of the Four-nation Naval Exercise Malabar 2020 took place in the Bay of Bengal (Phase 1 November)?
Phase 1 of the 24th Edition of the Four-nation Naval Exercise Malabar 2020 took place in the Bay of Bengal from November 3-6, 2020. The Four Nations India, United States, Japan, Australia jointly form the QUAD (Quadrilateral Security Dialogue) Group. The exercise was restricted to sea phase and was conducted in “Zero Contact” format due to Pandemic.
Indian Navy (IN), United States Navy (USN), Japan Maritime Self-Defence Force (JMSDF), and Royal Australian Navy (RAN) participated in the maritime exercise.
For the first time in 10 years, exercise is witnessing the participation of all four Quad countries. Australia is taking part in the exercise for the first time after 2007.
- CARAT-2020 Exercise is set to take place in Bay of Bengal. It is the exercise between which two countries?
1) India & Bangladesh
2) India & US (United States)
3) Bangladesh & US (United States)
4) Bangladesh & UK (United Kingdom)
5) India & UK (United Kingdom)
Answer-3) Bangladesh & US (United States)
Bangladesh and US (United States) Navies launched the ‘Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) Bangladesh-2020’ to expand relationships and to broaden maritime awareness between the two sides. The sea phase of the exercise will take place in the Bay of Bengal with ships from both countries. They are designed to enhance interoperability between the two navies. CARAT 2020 underscores the shared vision of the US and Bangladesh for a free, open, inclusive, peaceful and secure Indo-Pacific region.
- Where is world’s highest-altitude data centre being set up?
1) United States
China is building the world’s highest-altitude cloud computing data centre in Tibet that will meet the data storage needs of the country and South Asian nations like Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The data centre is located in a high-tech zone of the Tibetan regional capital city of Lhasa located at an altitude of around 3,656 metres, making it the highest-altitude data centre in the world, state-run Xinhua news agency reported.
With a total planned investment of 11.8 billion yuan (over USD 1.80 billion), the project will provide services in areas such as video rendering, autonomous driving, distance-learning data backup, among others, according to its Lhasa-based operator, the Ningsuan Technology Group.
- Who is the author of the book “Thavaasmi: Life and Skills through the lens of Ramayana” launched by M. Venkaiah Naidu (Vice President of India)?
1) Rallabandi Srirama Chakradhar
2) Vinay Sitapati
3) Amara Sarada Deepthi
4) 1 & 2
5) 1 & 3
Answer-5) 1 & 3
M. Venkaiah Naidu, Vice President (VP) of India launched the book titled “Thavaasmi: Life and Skills through the lens of Ramayana” over a virtual platform. Rallabandi Srirama Chakradhar authored the book along with the co-author Amara Sarada Deepthi.
The “Thavaasmi: Life and Skills through the lens of Ramayana” is a 4 volumed book prepared by the Thavaasmi team and students and teachers from various schools who participated in the online program. These 4 volumes provide insights about the Ramayana, the first Indian epic.
- Veteran Bollywood Actor and Padma awardee, Anupam Kher unveiled the cover of his new book titled “Your Best Day Is Today!” What is name of his autobiography?
1) Cracking The Code
2) Romancing With Life
3) From Zero To Thirty-Two
4) Lessons Life Taught Me Unknowingly
5) Half A Rupee
Answer-4) Lessons Life Taught Me Unknowingly
Your Best Day is Today is the 3rd book of Anupam Kher. The book presents the encounters and experiences of Anupam Kher during the COVID-19 pandemic. The book covers the period during which his mother Dulari and brother Raju Kher were tested for coronavirus pandemic. He published the book titled “The Best Things About You is You!” in 2011. His 2nd book was an autobiography titled “Lessons Life Taught Me Unknowingly” published in 2019.
- The International Stress Management Association – United Kingdom (ISMAUK) has organised the first ever online global stress and wellbeing summit on the occasion of International Stress Awareness Week 2020. When is the International Stress Awareness Week 2020celebrated?
1) 19th October to 23rd October
2) 26th October to 30th October
3) 2nd November to 6th November
4) 9th November to 13th November
5) 6th November to 10th November
Answer-3) 2nd November to 6th November
The International Stress Awareness Week is annually celebrated from 2nd November to 6th November to raise awareness on the prevention of stress and to promote the importance of wellbeing of individuals and organisations. The international week was established to focus on stress management. The 2020 International Stress Awareness Week provides a platform to highlight the stress and other mental health issues and share the insights on stress management across the globe. The International Stress Management Association – United Kingdom (ISMAUK) has organised the first ever online global stress and wellbeing summit from 2nd November 2020 to 6th November 2020 on account of the International Stress Awareness week.
- When is National Cancer Awareness Day observed in India?
1) November 2
2) November 4
3) November 6
4) November 7
5) November 8
Answer-4) November 7
The National Cancer Awareness Day is annually observed across India on 7th November to create awareness about the prevention and early detection of Cancer among the general public. The first National Cancer Awareness Day was observed in 2014. The National Cancer Awareness Day on 7th November coincides with the birth anniversary of French- Polish Physicist and Nobel laureate Madame Marie Curie, the first woman to win a Nobel Prize (1903).
STATIC GK based on Current Affairs
- Miya Museum is proposed to be set up in which Indian State?
“Miya Museum” is a proposed museum to be set up in Assam. It came in news when Assam Health Minister Himanta Biswa Sarma rejected a Congress MLA’s idea of setting up a “Miya Museum” at the Srimanta Sankaradeva Kalakshetra, a centre in Guwahati showcasing the State’s cultural heritage.
- A snubbing unit from Canada has been called to control the fire erupted in The Oil India Limited (OIL)-owned Baghjan 5 well burning for more than five months. Where is Baghjan District?
On May 27, a blowout or an uncontrollable release of natural gas was reported at well number 5 in the Baghjan oilfield in Assam’s Tinsukia district. On June, the well erupted in flames.
On November 5, a press statement from OIL said that the “well-killing operation by the snubbing unit will commence in the next couple of days.”
The snubbing unit is a special technology that has been brought from Calgary, Canada and reached the site on Wednesday evening. OIL resorted to the technology when they failed to control the well after reaching the penultimate stage of operations in mid-August.
- What is currency of Philippines?
Capital and Currency of ‘Philippines’ is ‘Manila’ & ‘Philippine Peso’ respectively.
President– Rodrigo Roa Duterte
- What can be maximum number of Information Commissioners in Central Information Commission?
Presently there are 7 Information Commissioners.It is to be noted that the Commission can hold up to 10 Information Commissioners. Uday Mahurkar, journalist; Heera Lal Samariya, a 1985-batch IAS officer of Telangana cadre and retired Secretary, Ministry of Labour & Employment; Saroj Punhanian, an Indian Audit and Accounts Service (IAAS) officer of 1984 batch and former Deputy Comptroller and Auditor General were appointed recently (November) as the Information commissioners by the 3-member committee. Vanaja N Sarna, Neeraj Kumar Gupta, Suresh Chandra and Amita Pandove are the other 4 existing Information Commissioners.
- Where is the headquarters of Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)?
1) Vienna, Austria
2) Geneva, Switzerland
3) Baghdad, Iraq
4) Doha, Qatar
5) Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Answer-1) Vienna, Austria
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries is an intergovernmental organization of 13 nations. Founded on 14 September 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members, it has since 1965 been headquartered in Vienna, Austria, although Austria is not an OPEC member state.