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Indian Polity: Preamble of India

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The preamble sets out the main objectives of the Constitution; the objective which the Constitution- makers intended to be realised through it. It is the key to open the mind of the Constitutionmakers.

The preamble is a legitimate aid in the construction of the provisions of the Constitution.

WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, have solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:

JUSTICE, social, economic and political;

LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;

EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;

and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;

Here:

SOVEREIGN: It is Sovereign because the Constitution does not recognise the legal supremacy of another country over India. Her membership of the Commonwealth of the Nations is not inconsistent with her independent and sovereign status.

SOCIALIST: Indicates the incorporation of the philosophy of ‘socialism’ in the Constitution which aims at elimination of inequality in income and status and standards of life and may enable the courts to lean more and more in favour of nationalisation and State ownership of an industry.

SECULAR: The word ‘secular’ simply recognises the concept of secularism as manifested in the guarantee of freedom of religion as a fundamental right in the Constitution

DEMOCRATIC :It is Democratic because the Constitution rests on the people’s will, and the institutions set up under it shall seek to give effect to democratic principles

REPUBLIC : It is Republic because the head of the State is not a hereditary monarch.

Amendment: In 42nd amendment, 1976 socialist, secular , and integrity words  were added in Preamble.

Time line of formation of New States:

Andhra Pradesh Created by the State of Andhra Pradesh Act 1953 by carving our some areas from the State of Chennai
Gujarat and Maharashtra The State of Mumbai was divided into two States i.e. Maharashtra and Gujarat by the Mumbai (Reorganisation) Act 1960
Kerala Created by the State Reorganisation Act, 1956. It comprised Travancor and Cochin areas
Karnataka Created from the Princely State of Mysuru by the State Reorganisation Act, 1956. It was renamed Karnataka in 1973
Nagaland It was carved out from the State of Asom by the State of Nagaland Act, 1952
Haryana It was carved out from the State of Punjab by the Punjab (Reorganisation) Act, 1966
Himachal Pradesh The Union Territory of Himachal Pradesh was elevated to the status of State by the State of Himachal Pradesh Act, 1970
Meghalaya First carved out as a sub-State within the State of Asom by 23 Constitutional Amendment Act, 1969. Later in 1971, it received the status of a full-fledged State by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act 1971
Manipura and Tripura Both these States were elevated from the status of Union-Territories by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act 1971
Sikkim Sikkim was first given the Status of Associate State by the 35th Constitutional Amendment Act 1974. It got the status of a full State in 1975 by the 36th Amendment Act, 1975
Mizoram It was elevated to the status of a full State by the State of Mizoram Act, 1986
Arunachal Pradesh It received the status of a full state by the State of Arunachal Pradesh Act, 1896
Goa Goa was separated from the Union-Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu and was made a full-fledged State of Goa, Daman and Diu Reorganisation Act 1987. But Daman and Diu remained as Union Territory
Chhattisgarh Formed by the Constitutional Amendment Act, 2000 by dividing Madhya Pradesh on November 1, 2000
Uttarakhand Formed by the Constitutional Amendment Act, 2000 by dividing Uttar Pradesh on November 9, 2000
Jharkhand Formed by the Constitutional Amendment Act, 2000 by dividing Bihar on November 15, 2000
Telengana It was formed on 2 June 2014 with the city of Hyderabad as its capital