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English Questions: Inference Set 6

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Welcome to Online English Section with explanation in AffairsCloud.com. Here we are creating question sample in Inference , which is BASED ON RECENT IBPS EXAM.

Inference

In each of the given questions an inference is given in bold which is then followed by three paragraph. You have to find the paragraph(s) from where it is inferred. Choose the option with the best possible outcome as your choice.

  1. Inference – Disadvantages of E-governance
    I. Studies have shown that there is potential for a reduction in the usability of government online due to factors such as the access to Internet technology and usability of services and the ability to access to computers. Even though the level of confidence in the security offered by government web sites are high, the public are still concerned over security, fear of spam from providing email addresses, and government retention of transaction or interaction history.
    II. Electronic governments also consist on certain disadvantage. The main disadvantage of an electronic government is to move the government services into an electronic based system. This system loses the person to person interaction which is valued by a lot of people.
    III. The implementation of an e government does have certain constraints. Literacy of the users and the ability to use the computer, users who do not know how to read and write would need assistance. An example would be the senior citizens. In general, senior citizens do not have much computer education and they would have to approach a customer service officer for assistance. And also in case of rural people, it gives scope for middle man, who distort the information.
    1. II,III
    2. II
    3. III
    4. I,II
    5. All are correct
    Answer – 5
    Explanation:
    All are correct

  2. Inference – Migration as an economic issue
    I. In the long term, both high and low-skilled workers who migrate bring benefits to their new home countries by increasing income per person and living standards. High-skilled migrants bring diverse talent and expertise, while low-skilled migrants fill essential occupations for which natives are in short supply and allow natives to be employed at higher-skilled jobs. Gains are broadly shared by the population, so it may be well-worth shouldering the short-term costs to help integrate these new workers.
    II. Sending countries may experience both gains and losses in the short term but may stand to gain over the longer term. For receiving countries temporary worker programs help to address skills shortages but may decrease domestic wages and add to public welfare burden. The economic effects of migration for both sending and receiving countries may also vary depending on who is moving, specifically with respect to migrant workers’ skill levels.
    III. What’s at stake: migration is currently a very hot topic in both the US and the EU. Immigration issues have come to the forefront due to the problem of rapidly ageing populations, the refugee crisis, and growing anti-immigration political rhetoric. But what do we know about the economic effects of migration?
    1. II,III
    2. I
    3. I,III
    4. I,II
    5. All are correct
    Answer – 4
    Explanation:
    III doesn’t mentions anything about migration with respect to economic effect

  3. Inference – Understanding Subsidies in India
    I. Subsidies are one of the quintessential attributes of any welfare state. India, at the eve of independence was left with uphill task of socio-economic development. Markets were almost nonexistence, masses lived in abject poverty and illiteracy, we were not producing enough food to satiate hunger of masses, life expectancy was just 32 years; in short, there was crisis in every sphere; be it agriculture, industry, health or education; partly due to colonial legacy.
    II. To prepare a foundation of various economic sectors in which private sector can participate later. When economy is at lower stages of development, it is often unviable and unaffordable for private sector to step in production. This is mainly because there are limited resources with private investors and there are informational externalities/uncertainties.
    III. Subsidies are meant for poor people and they shall ensure equitable redistribution of resource. Subsidies extended to rich are regressive. They help in keeping poverty intact and create inefficiencies in economy which culminates in inflation and corruption. In such case economy is retarded as we have seen in India’s case. When India grew in first decade of millennium at average rate of 7.5% it was found that this growth was jobless and unsustainable. India’s economy faced supply side constraints, which didn’t increase productivity as compared to GDP.
    1. II
    2. I,III
    3. III
    4. II,III
    5. All are correct
    Answer –2
    Explanation:
    Statement II doesn’t talk about subsidies.

  4. Inference – Black Money fallouts
    I. Generally speaking, black money is one in which ownership is fully or partially illegal. This illegality is primarily because it went concealed from government violating laws of the country. There can be two circumstances, one is where source activity of that money is also illicit and other where source activity was legitimate but income was concealed from taxation authorities.
    II. It is hard for RBI to frame effective monetary policy. Black money floating in economy is impossible to estimate and remains out of preview of government. RBI increases interest rates, CRR, SLR etc. to regulate money supply but more there is black money, more is ineffectiveness of these measures.
    III. Black money is both cause and effect of corruption. To handle this money at macro level political support is essential and it is widely perceived that politicians are biggest beneficiary of this system. This we can realize if we see money spend in Indian elections and its opaqueness.
    1. II
    2. I
    3. I,III
    4. II,III
    5. All are correct
    Answer – 4
    Explanation:
    Statement I doesn’t talks about consequences/effects of black money

  5. Inference – Combating Communalism
    I. Each of us, have to make a balance between our own religious community and national interests, we have to unite with nationalism, and then should move forward. The teachings of a religious community may be great, but the followers of the community concerned should understand that nationalism is greater. If they do not become familiar with this fact, they will be away from national stream; they will suffer. This fact relates not only to India but also to many other countries of the world.
    II. Communalism can be combated with the help of globalisation as a tool. In the globalised world, all countries are becoming integrated and dependent on each other. Movement of people from one place to other is becoming very easy, in such conditions to avoid such potential violence, governments are already promoting cultural exchanges through shows, programs, heritage walk, cultural visit by students and parliamentarians.
    III. Communal violence is common now days throughout the world. They are known by various alternative names, as in China, the communal violence in Xinjiang province is called ethnic violence. Communal violence and riots have also been called non-State conflict, violent civil or minorities unrest, mass racial violence, social or inter-communal violence and ethno-religious violence.
    1. II,III
    2. I
    3. I,II
    4. I,III
    5. All are correct
    Answer – 3
    Explanation:
    Statement III doesn’t align with the inference given

  6. Inference – Tools to protect against Cyber-threats
    I. Community in cyberspace is based on the interaction between people. Cyberspace has an important social aspect to it that must not be overlooked. Cyberspace can be treated as a channel touching portion of real space at key points. Ideas are passed through the channel, and business is transacted through this channel. The cyberspace communities are members of the global community interacting on a different plane than in real space.
    II. Rules for compulsory wearing of helmet for bikers by government authorities, has no benefit for them, it is for our own safety and life. Same we should understand our responsibilities for our own cyber space and should at least take care of safety for our personal devices. These steps include installation of antivirus software and keeping it updated, installing personal firewalls and keeping rules updated. We should monitor and archive all security logs.
    III. We should have backup of important data. Our devices should be protected by passwords and there should be restricted access to sensitive data on our devices. And above all, we should aspire for more computer literacy to understand the safety issues related to our cyberspace. At the same time we need to utilise the specialisation of private sector in the field of cyber security and government should promote more PPP projects for the national cyber space
    1. III
    2. II,III
    3. I,II
    4. I,III
    5. All are correct
    Answer – 2
    Explanation:
    Statement I doesn’t align with inference given

  7. Inference – Paramountcy of Oil for energy
    I. India’s energy security is a critical issue and its economy and even foreign relations are substantially affected by its dependence upon imported crude oil. Oil requirement in future will be significantly higher, because of growth in economy and in turn growing consumption of households and industry. It is also pre- requisite for success of recent initiatives such as ‘Make in India’. India’s oil reserves are insufficient for its growing energy needs and situation is made worse by policy paralysis which increases the gestation period of the projects.
    II. These are the regions of earth which are subsided from long and are later filled by sediments. This results in gradual thinning of crust by sedimentary, tectonic or volcanic loading. These basins are rich in Organic material (detritus)or fossils, which over time under pressure gets converted in fuel. Generally speaking, oil and gas are formed from the organic remains of marine organisms which become entrained within sea-floor sediments.
    III. India’s oil reserves are insufficient for its growing energy needs and situation is made worse by policy paralysis which increases the gestation period of the projects. New Exploration Licensing Policy was adopted in year 1997 and since then India’s exploration and refining capacities have increased manifold. Off late its is being realized that, we need to diversify our energy basket through alternate fuels such as Coal Bed Methane, Hydrogen, Shale Gas or effective Ethanol blended fuel etc. , to ensure energy security.
    1. I,III
    2. II
    3. I
    4. II,III
    5. All are correct
    Answer – 1
    Explanation:
    Statement II talks about physical aspect, and doesn’t align with the inference given

  8. Inference – Frailties of Urbanisation
    I. Roughly a third of the urban population today lives below the poverty line. There are glaring disparities between haves and have-nots in urban areas. The most demanding of the urban challenges, unquestionably is the challenge posed by poverty; the challenge of reducing exploitation, relieving misery and creating more human condition for urban poor. There is rise in urban inequality, as per UN habitat report, 2010, urban inequality in India rose from 34 to 38 % based on consumption in period of 1995 to 2005.
    II. Prevention of urban crime is another challenge before the government of States having more number of urban areas and particularly metropolitan cities. The mega cities are facing increased criminal activities on account of unchecked migration, illegal settlements and diverse socio-cultural disparities, organized groups, gangsters, professional criminals for wishing a lavish life in metropolis. Prevention of crime in mega cities is a challenge before the city government in India.
    III. Vulnerability to risk posed by the increasing man-made and natural disasters. According to UNDP 70 % of Indian population is at risk to floods and 60% susceptible to earthquakes. The risk are higher in urban areas owing to density and overcrowding. Urban areas are becoming heat islands, ground water is not being recharged and water crisis is persistent. Here making, water harvesting compulsory will be beneficial
    1. I,III
    2. II
    3. II,III
    4. I
    5. All are correct
    Answer – 5
    Explanation:
    All are correct

  9. Inference – Countering Non-performing Assets
    I. Banks need to be more conservative in granting loans to sectors that have traditionally found to be contributors in NPAs. Infrastructure sector is one such example. NPAs rise predominantly because of long gestation period of the projects. Therefore, the infrastructure sector, instead of getting loans from the banks can be funded from Infrastructure Debt Funds (IDFs) or other specialized funds for infrastructural development in the country.
    II. The credit sanctioning process of banks needs to go much more beyond the traditional analysis of financial statements and analyzing the history of promoters. For example, banks rely more on the information given by credit bureaus. However, it is often noticed that several defaults by some corporate are not registered in their credit history.
    III. Contrary to popular perceptions,the NPA in non-corporate sector is less than that in the corporate sector. Hence, there is a need to reach out to people in remote areas lacking connectivity and accessibility. More and more poor people in rural pockets should be brought under the banking system by adopting new technologies and electronic means. Innovative business models will play a crucial role here. Otherwise, the NPAs may increase instead of decreasing.
    1. II,III
    2. II
    3. I,II
    4. I
    5. All are correct
    Answer – 5
    Explanation:
    All are correct

  10. Inference – Positives from NGOs
    I. NGOs with the support given by the government has been accelerating its development activities by taking up specific issues like Poverty alleviation, child rights, caste stigma and discriminations, women rights, child labor, rural development, water and sanitation, environmental issues etc., In the last two decades the role of NGOs have become proactive in the social sector development-education, health etc.
    II. NGOs have played a crucial role in sending the school dropouts back to the school especially in rural areas thus upholding the Right to education. And also the health sector development programmes like Leprosy eradication programme and programs on eliminating TB, malaria and improving water and sanitation facilities by NGOs have met with huge success.
    III. Social service is associated with India since ancient times. It is said that even Mahatma Gandhi after attaining independence wanted Indian National congress to be transformed into a Public service organization. Although such proposal was rejected, later many of staunch Gandhi followers did set up large number of voluntary orgs across various parts of the country to carry of the constructive works on Gandhian principles. However, the real and identified registration and formation of NGOs emerged in India from early 1970s. Immediately after their formal inception, NGOS received grater thrust form the Government in more than one ways.
    1. III
    2. I,II
    3. II
    4. I,III
    5. All are correct
    Answer – 2
    Explanation:
    Statement III talks about origin of NGOs,not its benefits