English Questions: Inference Set 4

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Welcome to Online English Section with explanation in AffairsCloud.com. Here we are creating question sample in Inference , which is BASED ON RECENT IBPS EXAM.

Inference

In each of the given questions an inference is given in bold which is then followed by three paragraph. You have to find the paragraph(s) from where it is inferred. Choose the option with the best possible outcome as your choice.

  1. INFERENCE: Building resilience for Disaster
    a) Disaster resilience is the ability of individuals, communities, organisations and states to adapt to and recover from hazards, shocks or stresses such as earthquakes, floods, droughts etc. without compromising long-term prospects for development. It is determined by the degree to which individuals, communities and public and private organisations are capable of organising themselves to learn from past disasters and reduce their risks to future ones, at international, regional, national and local levels.
    b) Take for example Japan which is one of the most exposed countries to earthquakes , tsunamis ,and volcanic eruptions ,not to mention its annual experience with typhoons. Yet Japan is by no means a vulnerable country. And today, most experts agree that Japan, with strict building standards, advanced detection technology, flood prevention infrastructure and more than 7,600 buildings that use seismic isolation systems, is the most disaster resilient country on earth. Thus we can learn from Japan to be not just reactive but proactive as well. for instance had Kerala also developed flood prevention infrastructure ,better information dissemination, underground reservoirs etc like Japan ,the destruction could be minimised.
    c) Actions carried out in a disaster situation with the objective to save life, alleviate suffering and reduce economic losses. The main tool in response is the implementation of plans which are prepared prior to the event. Response activities are post activities geared towards providing emergency assistance, Reducing probability of additional injuries or damage, speeding recovery operations and returning systems to normal level.
    1) only a
    2) Both b and c
    3) Both a and b
    4) only b
    3) all are correct
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – (3) Both a and b
    Explanation:
    meaning of Resilience-the mental ability to recover quickly from illness, depression/the physical property of a material to regain its shape after being stretched or deformed.
    In the context of question resilient meant the ability to be prepared and recover from any natural disaster. And paragraphs a&b justify the inference given. paragraph c talks just about different aspects of rescue work after a disaster thus it cannot be the answer.
  2. INFERENCE: Data is the new oil
    a) Till the last century crude oil was driving the industrial growth and development. But now it seems data is also as precious as crude. Companies like Google and facebook are intelligently tapping its potential and earning huge profits. Even government departments exploiting its potential for better public service delivery
    b) Supreme Court of India made several recommendations, which include jurisdiction of processing personal data, setting up an independent regulatory body for enforcing the data protection law and heavy penalties for violating this law, among other clauses.
    c) Even as technology majors anticipate the next move, India’s primary IT industry bodies such as NASSCOM and Data Security Council of India (DSCI) have been advocating for stringent data privacy and protection for years now, especially since
    India is making rapid inroads into the global digital market.
    1) Both a and b
    2) only a
    3) Both a and c
    4) only c
    5) all are correct
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – (2) only a
    Explanation:
    What we infer from Data is the new oil that data nowadays just like oil s very precious and can be used for a lot of purposes both good and bad.Paragraph a talks exactly about the importance of data as the new oil and thus it is a correct answer, While paragraph b&c talks about measures on data privacy rules and regulations and hence not related to the inference given.

  3. INFERENCE: Sustainable development
    a) Environmentalists as well as common men around the world are seeking questions like- can humans (we) keep up industrial and economic development without depleting or degrading our natural resources? Can forests be cleared endlessly for cultivation and habitation? Can fossils be pumped out in a never ending manner? Ever increasing exploitation of natural resources with environmental degradation has reached a point that now threatens the wellbeing and future of ,mankind.
    b) Rapid population growth ,coupled with demand of man and material comforts has put tremendous pressure on mother Earth and its environment .Various human activities such as food production ,industrial development, urbanisation are having destructive influence on the planet.
    c) Sensitive regions of the world would remain at risk of the dangerous and potentially irreversible effects of climate change, even if we meet the target of not increasing global temperature above 1.5 degree Celsius over the next 100 years, a study has found. Risk of food security and water, heat exposure ,drought and coastal submergence, all these threats loom large if nothing concrete is done.
    1) Only a
    2) Both a and c
    3) Only b
    4) Both a and b
    5) All are correct
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer –(1) Only a
    Explanation:
    Sustainable development simply means using the resources judiciously without running out and preserve for coming generation as well which is being reflected in just the paragraph a only. Therefore correct answer is only first paragraph.
    Paragraph b does not talk specifically about sustainable development and paragraph c talks about climate change. Thus b&c cannot be the answer
  4. INFERENCE: Behavioural change for a social change
    a) Designing policies which take into account human behavior are more successful as many policies designed to bring about positive change need to eliminate/modify older mindset/habits. Social change is a deliberate and iterative process of public and private dialogue, debate, and negotiation that focuses on the community as the unit of change.
    b) A society constitutes of people and the behavior of the society is inextricably linked to the behavior of people living in it. For any social change to happen it’s the people’s behavior and their practices which is required in the first place. For eg. Not
    littering and keeping surroundings clean for a Swachh Bharat, or not burning stubble to keep the air clean etc.
    c) Fundamental to our approach is the understanding that behaviors don’t occur in a vacuum and that many are grounded in customs that communities have practiced for generations or habits that are deeply entrenched.
    1) only a
    2) only c
    3) Both a and b
    4) only b
    5) all are correct
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – (4) only b
    Explanation:
    paragraph b goes with the inference given in the question that people’s behavior is important to bring any change. Therefore only paragraph b is the answer.
  5. INFERENCE: Differentiated Responsibility
    a) The more industrialized a country is, more likely that it has contributed to climate change. States have come to an agreement that developed countries contributed more to environmental degradation and should have greater responsibility than developing countries
    b) World now can no longer have two distinct categories of countries having different responsibility. Countries should instead follow differentiation of a continuum, where states are required to act vigorously according to their own circumstances, abilities and responsibilities.
    c) Moreover, climate change threatens another value (“respect for nature”) that cannot easily be taken up by concerns of global justice or moral responsibility of adopting corrected measures.
    1) only b
    2) Both a and c
    3) only a
    4) Both b and c
    5) all are correct
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – (3) only a
    Explanation:
    Common but Differentiated responsibility is a concept regarding climate change wherein the developed countries are supposed to take more responsibilities to help mitigate climate change rather than developing and poorer nations, because the former are bigger polluters and also more capable of taking steps ahead.( which is what being exactly said in paragraph a and thus the answer.
    paragraph b talks totally opposite of the inference given and nothing concrete can be inferred from paragraph c as well.
  6. INFERENCE: Religious Extremism
    a) All religions declare that peace and reconciliation are their goals, yet all too often they appear to exacerbate conflicts. Religion is sole reason to be blamed for much of the violence in our world, both today and in the past.
    b) The abuse of religion has often been related to the first two: belief and behavior. It cannot be denied that, to religion’s shame, arguments over doctrine and even ritual have led to violent clashes. Even today they are used as a pretext for violence towards those who do not share the same beliefs and practices.
    c) Obviously the most vulnerable to blasphemy and violence after it are the women and children of religious minorities, people with mental disabilities, and the weak because they are seen as easy targets by extremists and fundamentalists to uphold
    their false sense of pride.
    1) only a
    2) Both a and b
    3) only b
    4) Both b and c
    5) all are correct
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer –(4) Both b and c
    Explanation:
    Paragraph 1 cannot be correct as it takes religion as a whole for reasons of violence. Paragraph b talks subtly about the aspects of religious extremism and thus is correct choice. Paragraph c talks about the section of people who are most prone to religious extremism and thus a correct choice.
  7. INFERENCE: Credible minimum deterrent
    a) The posture of No first use entails that nuclear weapons will be used only in retaliation against a nuclear attack on Indian territory and not using it against states which are non-nuclear.
    b) History will tell us about the perceived Chinese threat, which was the catalyst for India to test its first nuclear device in 1974. However the 1998 tests, conducted under the auspices of the newly instated government, were more in line with regional prestige than with national security.
    c) Theoretically, New Delhi wants to neutralize any threat of a nuclear attack by amassing the reasonable and minimum firepower and capability required to deliver a punitive retaliatory measure.
    1) only a
    2) Both and b
    3) Both a and c
    4) only c
    5) all are correct
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – (3) Both a and c
    Explanation:
    Credible means something which is acceptable and reasonable and Deterrence means the action of discouraging an action or event by instilling doubt or fear. Paragraphs a&c are suggestive of India’s nuclear policy which as explained above is minimum and reasonable thus making a&c as right answer
    paragraph b just talks about the history and not at all related to the inference given.
  8. INFERENCE: Misinformation and mobocracy
    a) There was an idea given called MASUKA(maanav suraksha kaanoon) by
    lawyers and activists to define mob lynching and make it a non bailable offence with punishment upto life imprisonment and also provisions for compensation to victims and kin.
    b) The human resources of the country, are being lynched with a trigger of violence by the Mob led by simple spread of fake news on social media, WhatsApp group. Despite all the laws in place, the intolerance is growing and the Mob without getting to the truth, jump to the conclusion that leads to the lynching.
    c) The perpetrators in the Mob resorting to lynching are largely villagers. Inflamed by fake news of child-trafficking, Cow slaughter, inter religion marriages sent as the WhatsApp messages, they resort to their own criteria of justice which is attacking and beating to death people who often are innocent.
    1) only a
    2) Both a and b
    3) Both b and c
    4) only b
    5) all are correct
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer –(3) Both b and c
    Explanation:
    Mobocracy means rule or control by a mob.
    The inference given implies that misinformation is one of the biggest reasons for mob violence and paragraph b&c conform to it. But paragraph a just talks of solution of mob violence thus cannot be the answer.
  9. INFERENCE: Strategic autonomy in foreign policy
    a) Though India still harps on her strategic autonomy doctrine , the fast changing strategic environment in Indo-Pacific region, crisscrossing strategic fault lines between two oceans, and India’s complex and unsettled relations with China may encourage India to tilt towards US. But US can never be trusted ,it has and it will always adopt an approach which suits its best. An enemy of yesterday is a friend of tomorrow for US. Thus India cannot endanger itself by aligning with any superpower.
    b) Consequently, the concept of strategic autonomy, which is a mutation of realism and India’s traditional non-aligned posture, can be described as a dependence control strategy aimed at safeguarding its independence in both foreign policy decision making and protecting strategic assets against American pressure. For India strategic autonomy necessitates the association between an autonomous foreign policy/security decision making capability and the preservation of material assets (both technical and economic) which is an inherent part of its foreign policy.
    c) India’s foreign policy still gives rise to grave doubts in the Western mind. The reason for this is the acceptance of old definitions rather than an appreciation of the country’s background and its human aspirations. The word “neutrality” as applied to India’s foreign policy has little meaning. Like a hundred other oft-repeated words it has become blunted with use, and can be related to India only in the context of her past and present policies. What does neutrality–or, as we prefer to call it, non-alignment–mean and why does India follow this path?
    1) Both a and b
    2) only b
    3) Both a and c
    4) Both b and c
    5) all are correct
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – (2) Only b
    Explanation:
    Strategic autonomy refers to a foreign policy posture, whereby a nation maintains independent outlook and orientation in foreign affairs with respects to the issues defining her core strategic interests which very important for any country’s foreign policy.
    only paragraph 2 relates to the inference given in the question.
  10. INFERENCE- Defaulting at will
    a) RBI has maintained that all those entities would be deemed as defaulters if they have defaulted in meeting its payment/repayment obligations to the lender even when it has the capacity to honour the said obligations.”
    b) The defaulting borrower has failed to pay but it has the ability to pay. In other words, there is a lack of intention to pay. A default occurs because of a lack of ability to pay, a lack of intention to pay or both.
    c) Knowingly if someone has not utilized the funds for the purposes for which they were sought but has diverted the funds to other ends and made investment in other companies without approval of lenders ,then it puts load on the already weakening banks.
    1) only1
    2) Both 1&3
    3) Both 2&3
    4) only 2
    5) all are correct
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – (5) all are correct.
    Explanation:
    All the paragraphs in a way talk about willful defaulters of loans where in even if the borrower has ability to pay off but does not pay and hence, all three paragraph follow the inference given in the question.
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