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8th International Convention of Saurashtra Patel Cultural Samaj addressed by PM Modi
On July 6, 2018, The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi, addressed the 8th International Convention of Saurashtra Patel Cultural Samaj through video conference which was held in California, United States of America.

8th International Convention of Saurashtra Patel Cultural Samaj addressed by PM ModiObjective:
Highlighting the contribution of the Indian Diaspora particularly Saurashtra Patel community.
Key Points:
i.He also appealed to NRI community to motivate at least five foreign families to visit India every year for Bharat Darshan.
ii.This can help in boosting India’s tourism development through Ek Bharat  Shresht Bharat Abhiyan scheme.
Other announcements:
i. Prime Minister said that India would celebrate the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, beginning from 2nd of October.
ii. A mammoth Statue of Unity in the name of the Iron Man of India is being constructed on River Narmada and it will be completed on 31st October 2018.This would be the highest statue in the world.
India’s Achievements:
i. Initiatives like GST and strict action against corruption have resulted in 42-place jump in the Ease of Doing Business rankings in the last four years.
ii. And various schemes of the Government, like Swachh Bharat has boosted tourism in the country.
About Ek Bharat, Shresht Bharat Abhiyan:
“Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat” was announced by Hon’ble Prime Minister on 31st October, 2015 on the occasion of the 140th birth anniversary of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. Subsequently, the Finance Minister announced the initiative in his Budget Speech for 2016-17.
Objectives of the scheme include:
i. To CELEBRATE the Unity in Diversity of our Nation and to maintain and strengthen the fabric of traditionally existing emotional bonds between the people of our Country.
ii. To PROMOTE the spirit of national integration through a deep and structured engagement between all Indian States.

 ‘GST Verify ‘App launched for protection of consumers from fraud by Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC)
On July  5, 2018, The Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC) has developed a mobile app ‘GST Verify’ to protect interest of consumers.
‘GST Verify ‘App launched for protection of consumers from fraud by Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC)Key Points:
i. has been developed by B Raghu Kiran joint commissioner GST Hyderabad and is operational all across the country.
ii. Through this app the person collecting GST from consumers can be verified.
iii. It also provides the details of the person/ company collecting GST.
iv. Additionally, CBIC announced that a Composition Tax Payer should not collect the tax from his consumer.
About Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC):
♦ Chairman: S Ramesh
♦ Headquarters: Ministry of Finance, New Delhi.
♦ Subsidiary: Directorate of Revenue Intelligence.

India gets its first biofortified sorghum (jowar) – Parbhani Shakti
On 5th July 2018, India’s first biofortified sorghum (jowar) named Parbhani Shakti containing higher iron and zinc than regular sorghum was formally launched.
India gets its first biofortified sorghum (jowar) - Parbhani ShaktiParbhani Shakti:
i. This improved sorghum variety has been developed by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid-Tropics (ICRISAT). It was released for cultivation by Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth (VNMKV), Maharashtra.
ii. The improved variety ICSR 14001 has been released as ‘Parbhani Shakti’ by VNMKV.
iii. Parbhani Shakti is cost-effective. It has been introduced as a sustainable solution to rectify micronutrient deficiency.
iv. On 5th July 2018, an MoU was signed by ICRISAT and VNMKV for large-scale seed production and dissemination.
v. Parbhani Shakti was developed by ICRISAT under HarvestPlus, a sorghum biofortification project.
vi. It was tested as PVK 1009 in Maharashtra and in All India Co-ordinated Sorghum Improvement Project (AICSIP) Trials.
vii. It was launched as a rainy season variety (Kharif). But it can be grown in post-rainy (Rabi) and summer seasons.
viii. The yield levels are greater (>5.0 t ha-1) in post rainy and summer seasons with irrigation.
ix. In summer season, it can tolerate higher temperatures (41°C) at flowering and seed setting but the flowering could be delayed (80 days).
About International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid-Tropics (ICRISAT):
♦ Director General – Dr. David Bergvinson
♦ Headquarters – Patancheru, Hyderabad, Telangana

First Cyber Forensic van of Delhi Police launched by Minister of State for Home Affairs Shri Hansraj Gangaram Ahir
On July 7, 2018, The Minister of State for Home Affairs Shri Hansraj Gangaram Ahir  launched the first Cyber Forensic van of Delhi Police and an online cyber crime portal where people can file complaint online regarding such crimes . This was announced at the “Cyber Safety and Digital awareness programme for senior citizens” organized by Delhi Police.
First Cyber Forensic van of Delhi Police launched by Minister of State for Home Affairs Shri Hansraj Gangaram AhirObjective:
To make citizens are more aware and responsible while making digital transactions especially senior citizens.
Key Points:
About the Cyber Forensic Vans of Delhi Police:
i. The Van has been developed keeping in mind the need for a portable/mobile system in view of increasing number of digital crimes. It will be available on call in all districts/units on 24×7 basis.
ii. It will be used for on-the-spot police investigations at crime scene.
Other announcements:
i. It was also announced that the Ministry  has earmarked Rs 25,000 crore for Police modernization and to deal with increasing rate of cyber crime in the country.
ii. Delhi Police has established Cyber Cells in 14 districts of Delhi working under the command of  a Special Cyber Unit at Headquarter level.  800 Police officers have already been trained specially to deal with cyber crimes.
iii. About 2,500 senior citizens participated in the programme.
Ministry of Home Affairs:
♦ Union Minister: Rajnath Singh.
♦ Minster of State:  Hansraj Gangaram Ahir, Kiren Rijiju.
♦ Nickname of Delhi: City of Rallies.
♦ Unesco Heritage Sites of Delhi: Humayun’s Tomb, Qutub Minar, Red Fort

1st meet of task force on e-commerce policy framework chaired by Commerce Secretary Rita Teaotia.
On July 7, 2018, Commerce Secretary Rita Teaotia chaired the first meeting of the task force set up to recommend the framework for a national policy on e-commerce .
Dignitaries Present in the meeting:
i. Various ministries and departments, high-level representatives from the industry bodies, e-commerce companies, telecommunication and IT companies and independent experts.
ii. Senior officers from the ministries of MSME, consumer affairs, electronics and information technology, corporate affairs and department of telecommunications, Competition Commission of India and DGFT.
Key Points:
i. This is done on the decision of a think-tank constituted on the issue under the chairmanship of Commerce and Industry Minister Suresh Prabhu in April 2018.
ii. The issues to be discussed on this meeting will cover areas of : cross-border data flows, taxation, trade facilitation and logistics, consumer confidence, IPR and future tech, FDI and competition.
iii. The task force was further divided into nine sub-groups for preparing recommendations for the national policy on e-commerce by the Commerce ministry.
iv. The suggestions and recommendations emerging from the task force meeting will be submitted to the think tank for consideration by August 2018.
About task force decisions:
Suggestions by the task force would include : taxation on electronic transmission of goods and services including 3D printing, implication of General Anti-Avoidance Rule (GAAR) on e-commerce, behaviour of current market players in e-commerce and anti-competitive practices policy and creating fair balance between online and physical marketplaces.
About the Sub-Groups of the task force:
i. The first sub-group is working on issues including cross border transfer of information by electronic means, data protection and location of computing facilities
ii. The second on digital product, custom duties and taxation
iii. The third on trade facilitation measures and logistics
iv. The fourth is working on measures enhancing consumer confidence.
v. The fifth sub-group focuses on protection of IP and contours of future technology such as AI and block chain,
vi. The sixth on payment systems and financial technologies,
vii. The seventh on interconnection issues and net neutrality,
viii. The seven and eighth are working on skills, education and training and SMEs and FDI and competition issues respectively.

Highest ever 06 Limited Height Subways (LHS) between two stations in Sambalpur Division launched by the East Coast Railways in one day sets record
On July 5, 2018, East Coast Railway launches highest ever 6 (six) Limited Height Subways (LHS) in Sambalpur Division and completed it in a single block of four and half hours .
Aim is to eliminate all unmanned Level Crossing Gates over Sambalpur Division.
Key Points:
i. It is a first of its kind not only in East Coast Railway, but also in the entire Indian Railways.
ii. Due to this seven unmanned Level Crossing gates will be totally closed in Bhawanipatna-Lanjigarh Road Section of Kalahandi area of Odisha.

Centre of Excellence for Data Science and Artificial Intelligence (CoE-DSAI) launched by Government of Karnataka and NASSCOM in Bengaluru
On July 5, 2018, National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM) launched a Centre of Excellence for Data Science and Artificial Intelligence (CoE – DSAI) in collaboration with the Government of Karnataka, in Bengaluru. 
i. NASSCOM also signed a Memorandum of Understanding with NITI Aayog to collaborate in areas of applied research, accelerating adoption and ethics, privacy and security. 
Dignitaries Present on the Launch:
The centre was inaugurated by KJ George, Minister for Large & Medium Scale Industries, IT & BT, Science & Technology, Government of Karnataka, in the presence of Gaurav Gupta, Principal Secretary, IT, BT and S&T, Government of Karnataka; Nivruti Rai, Country Head, Intel India and VP, Data Center Group, Intel; Nipun Mehrotra, CDO for India/South Asia, IBM; along with Debjani Ghosh, President, NASSCOM and Rishad Premji, Chairman, NASSCOM.
Aim to strengthen the country’s AI ecosystem and will serve as a platform for intelligence-sharing
Key Points:
i. The Centre of Excellence for Data Science and Artificial Intelligence will create a platform wherein stakeholders ranging from industry to academia can co-create digital solutions for Industry 4.0.
ii. NASSCOM will facilitate collaboration between NITI Aayog and CoEs and will include NITI Aayog as a knowledge partner. 
iii. NASSCOM has partnered with Intel and IBM as its founding members and technology advisors for augmenting and accelerating the Data Science & Artificial Intelligence ecosystem in the country.
iv. FutureSkills, NASSCOM and Niti Aayog will join hands to innovate and cultivate skilling in India.
About CoE-DSAI:
i. The CoE initiative is a nationwide program on innovation focusing on solutions in smart manufacturing, automotive, healthcare, agriculture, energy, IoT, banking & financial services, retail, telecom, and host of emerging technologies.
ii. It aims to support SMBs, by fast tracking their product development, provide market access to enterprises and assist them by co-creating programs along with other industry partners and start-ups.
iii. It will create large data-sets for training model, create a technology platform (cloud + on premise) with requisite library of solutions.
iv. The centre will also partner with universities to develop and provide access to right skill & talent alongside showcasing these emerging businesses across various NASSCOM platform.
About National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM):
♦ Headquarters: Noida.
♦ Chairperson: Rishad Premji.
♦ Founded: 1988.
♦ Members: 2300+.

Declaration of entire animal kingdom as ‘legal entities’ after Ganga and Yamuna : Uttarakhand HC.
On July 5,2018, The Uttarakhand high court declared the entire animal kingdom, including birds and aquatic animals, as a legal entity having rights of a “living person”.
This comes a year after the court accorded the status of “living entity” to the Ganga and Yamuna rivers (in March 2017) which was stayed by Supreme Court.
Key Points:
i. This decision was taken by a division bench of justices Rajiv Sharma and Lok Pal Singh.
ii. Invoking Article 21 of the Constitution, the court said that the animals can no longer be treated as properties and will be conferred with the status of “legal entity/legal person”.
iii. Earlier, similar rights were given to corporations, Hindu gods, holy scriptures and rivers.
iv. The court also declared all citizens of Uttarakhand “persons in loco parentis” (in the place of a parent) giving them the responsibility to protect animals and ensure their welfare.
v. The Division Bench also gave directions ranging from the amount of load allowed to be pulled by various animals in accordance with the kind of carriage being pulled to the amount of riders per carriage.
vi. It also directed ban on the use of spike or other sharp tackle or equipment on the animal, that no animal should draw vehicles if the temperature exceeds 37 degree C or drops to 5 degree C.
vii. For animal safety the court also mandated the need for fluorescent reflectors in carriages and animals, certificates of unladen weight of vehicles, compulsory shelter of suitable size for horses, bullocks and stray cattle and a direction to the veterinary doctors of Uttarakhand to treat any stray animals brought to them or by visiting them.
The order came in response to a public interest litigation seeking directions to restrict the movement of horse carts/tongas between Nepal and India through Champawat district and highlighted that ailing, infirm and old horses were being abandoned by the owners in the Indian territory.

West Bengal CM Mamata Banerjee announces ‘one person, one car’ policy for ministers and bureaurates
On July 7, 2018, West Bengal chief minister Mamata Banerjee set a “one person one car” policy for ministers and bureaucrats.
i. In lieu of certain ministers holding charge of multiple departments taking advantage of multiple government vehicles this decision was made.
To cut costs of the travel expenses incurred by the state .
Key Points:
i. According to the policy, In case of domestic travels, ministers and bureaucrats must avail low-cost airline and travel economy class.
ii. Foreign travels if any would be sanctioned only by her.
iii. She also ordered cuts on hospitality, food and refreshments on an emergency basis.
iv. Ministers and bureaucrats handling more than one department were cautioned against using multiple government vehicles from these departments.
v. Additionally, a committee headed by chief secretary Malay Kumar De was formed to supervise progress of government projects. The committee will have to ensure that projects are completed within deadline so that additional expenditure is not incurred.
West Bengal:
♦ Chief Minister: Mamata Banerjee.
♦ Governor: Keshari Nath Tripathy.
♦ National Parks: Jaldapara National Park, Sundarbans National Park, Gorumara National Park, Singalila National Park, Raianj National Park, Neora Valley National Park, Buxa Tiger Reserve.


Kathmandu : Conclusion of 2nd meeting of India & Nepal joint working group on tourism
On July 6, 2018, The 2nd meeting of the joint working group on tourism cooperation between India and Nepal concluded in Kathmandu.
Kathmandu : Conclusion of 2nd meeting of India & Nepal joint working group on tourismHighlights of the meeting:
i. Both sides agreed to jointly promote Buddhist and Ramayana circuits and Adventure tourism.
ii. This is first of its kind cooperation mechanism in the region wherein any two countries have agreed to promote each other’s’ tourist destinations.
iii. The group also decided to establish Indo-Nepal Tourism Forum which would be an industry-led cooperation forum with support of the two Governments.
iv. Also, agreement was made on improving critical tourism & enabling infrastructures such as overland road connectivity, further streamline of scheduled bus route operations including luxury bus coaches.
Dignitaries Present:
i. The Indian delegation was led by the Joint Secretary, Ministry of Tourism Suman Billa.
ii. Nepalese side was led by Joint Secretary, Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation Ghanshyam Upadhyaya.
About the joint working group:
i. The group was formed after Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to Nepal in 2014 to enhance cooperation in tourism between the two countries.
ii. The next meeting of the group would be held in New Delhi at a mutually convenient date.

Approval of USD 6.69 billion for 13 peacekeeping operations in 2018-19 by UN member states; first in 40 years.
On July 7, 2018, The UN member states approved a USD 6.69 billion dollar budget for 13 peacekeeping operations from July 1, 2018, to June 30, 2019 and implementation of other reforms for the first time in more than 40 years.
In making UN a more accountable, transparent, and efficient organization.
Key Points:
i. This decision was taken on the recommendation of the 5th  Committee (Administrative and Budgetary) of the General Assembly .
ii. It is the second year in a row in which the committee has made significant cuts to the overall peacekeeping budget.
Recommendations of the Committee:
i. The contribution of USD 6.69 billion dollars from member states would be invested in UN Peacekeeping missions.
ii. The missions include MINUJUSTH (United Nations Mission for Justice Support in Haiti), MINURSO (Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara), MINUSCA (Multidimensional Integrated Stabilisation Mission in the Central African Republic), MONUSCO (Stabilisation Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo) and UNIFIL (Interim Force in Lebanon).
iii. The committee also approved of major management reforms, including the creation of two new departments focused on political and peace building affairs. They are: Departments of Political and Peace building Affairs and the Department of Peace Operations.
iv. This was announced on a draft resolution titled ‘Special subjects relating to the programme budget for the biennium 2018-2019’.
v. Further, the assembly would create four stand-alone divisions for Africa, effective from January 1 2019.
vi. Approved the “Middle East Division” where the lead responsibility for the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) and United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) would be placed in the Department of Political and Peacebuilding Affairs.
About the contribution of various member states of UN:
i. The United States is the biggest contributor to the United Nations, paying 22 per cent of the USD 5.4 billion core budget and 28.5 per cent of the USD 7.9 billion peacekeeping budget.
ii. China is the other top contributor with 10.3 per cent and Japan with 9.7 per cent.
iii. Number of Member States: 193.


Dr. T.K Chand gets Knowledge Excellence Award for Outstanding Contribution in Aluminium Knowledge domain
Dr. Tapan Kumar Chand, CMD, NALCO, received Knowledge Excellence Award from Secretary, Ministry of Mines, Anil Gopishankar Mukim, for Outstanding Contribution in Aluminium Knowledge domain, at the 22nd International Conference on Non-Ferrous Minerals and Metals 2018 at Ranchi, Jharkhand.
Dr. T.K Chand gets Knowledge Excellence Award for Outstanding Contribution in Aluminium Knowledge domainDr. T.K Chand – Knowledge Excellence Award for Outstanding Contribution in Aluminium Knowledge domain:
i. The Conference was organized by Corporate Monitor. It was inaugurated by Secretary, Ministry of Mines, Anil Gopishankar Mukim.
ii. Industry leaders and policy makers, including from major Non Ferrous producers like NALCO, Aditya Birla, Vedanta and HCL took part in the conference.
iii. A special NALCO (National Aluminium Company Limited) booklet on Sustainable Mining named ‘Mine with Mind’ was released.
Some Wildlife sanctuaries in Jharkhand:
♦ Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary
♦ Gautam Budha Wildlife Sanctuary
♦ Hazaribag Wildlife Sanctuary


Muthoot Pappachan Group appoints Vidya Balan as its brand ambassador
The Muthoot Pappachan Group has named actress Vidya Balan as its brand ambassador.
Muthoot Pappachan Group appoints Vidya Balan as its brand ambassadorVidya Balan – brand ambassador of Muthoot Pappachan Group:
i. Vidya Balan has been appointed the brand ambassador for 2 years. The Muthoot Pappachan group will launch a new ad campaign, including TV commercials.
ii. A senior official of the Group said that, Rs 50 crore has been allotted for marketing campaign for this fiscal.
iii. Muthoot Pappachan Group is mainly involved in the financial services business. It is into two-wheeler finance, micro-finance, affordable housing finance, health, life and general insurance, precious metals, automotive, realty, hospitality and IT businesses, etc.
About Muthoot Pappachan Group:
♦ CMD – Thomas John Muthoot
♦ Registered Office – Trivandrum, Kerala

Justice Adarsh Kumar Goel appointed Chairperson of National Green Tribunal
Justice Adarsh Kumar Goel has been appointed the chairperson of National Green Tribunal.
Justice Adarsh Kumar Goel – Chairperson of National Green Tribunal:
i. Justice Adarsh Kumar Goel retired as Supreme Court judge on 6th July 2018.
ii. The post of the chairperson of National Green Tribunal was vacant for the last 8 months following Justice Swatanter Kumar’s retirement on 19th December 2018.
iii. Justice Adarsh Kumar Goel was elevated to Supreme Court on 7th July 2014. Earlier he was Chief Justice of the Orissa High Court and the Gauhati High Court.
iii. He was born on July 7, 1953. He had also served as executive chairman of the Haryana State Legal Services Authority.
About National Green Tribunal (NGT):
♦ Purpose – disposes cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources
♦ First chairperson of NGT – Justice Lokeshwar Singh Panta, appointed on October 18, 2010

Mukesh Ambani elected as Chairman of Reliance Industries Ltd. for a tenure of 5 years
On July 7, 2018, Shareholders of Reliance Industries have approved giving Mukesh Ambani another five years as the Chairman and Managing Director of the company.
i. As many as 50,818 crore (98.5 %) shares out of a total share base of 616.45 crore voted on the resolution of his appointment taken during the 41st annual general meeting held on July 5,2018 in Mumbai.
iiMukesh Ambani ,61, has been on the board of Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) since 1977.
iii. He was nominated the Chairman of the company after the death of Dhirubhai Ambani in 2002.
iv. He will be given an annual salary of Rs. 4.17 crore and Rs.59 lakhs of perquisites and allowances.
About RIL:
♦ It ranked 83rd in the Forbes Global 2000 list making it the only Indian company in top 100.
♦ Business range of RIL: energy, petrochemicals, textiles, natural resources, retail, and telecommunications.
♦ Headquarters: Mumbai.


NASA’s Parker Solar Probe gets ‘revolutionary’ heat shield
NASA’s Parker Solar Probe, the mission that aims to get the closest to the Sun than ever by any human-made object has got its revolutionary heat shield “Thermal Protection System or TPS” permanently attached to the spacecraft.
NASA’s Parker Solar Probe gets Thermal Protection System or TPS:
i. NASA’s Parker Solar Probe will be launched in August 2018. The probe’s heat shield is called the Thermal Protection System or TPS.
ii. It was reinstalled on the spacecraft on 27th June 2018. The re-installation of the heat shield was attached to the spacecraft during testing in 2017.
iii. This mission has been in the making for 60 years. Parker Solar Probe will travel to the Sun’s corona, a region of the solar atmosphere.
iv. The spacecraft’s orbit will carry it to within 4 million miles of the Sun’s surface with the help of its heat shield. There the spacecraft will collect data about the inner workings of the corona.
v. The heat shield’s diameter is 8 feet. It will safeguard everything within its umbra, the shadow it casts on the spacecraft.
v. As Parker Solar Probe approaches closest to the Sun, temperatures on the heat shield will reach around 1,371 degrees Celsius. But the spacecraft and its instruments will be maintained at a relatively comfortable temperature of nearly 29.4 degrees Celsius.
vi. The heat shield consists of 2 panels of superheated carbon-carbon composite sandwiching a lightweight 4.5-inch-thick carbon foam core.
vii. The Sun-facing side of the heat shield is sprayed with a specially formulated white coating to reflect most of the Sun’s energy away from the spacecraft.
viii. Parker Solar Probe will travel at a speed of 69,2018 km per hour at its closest approach to the Sun. The heat shield weighs only 72.5 kg.
About National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA):
♦ Administrator – Jim Bridenstine
♦ Headquarters – Washington, D.C., U.S.

USFDA gives nod to drug firm Zydus Cadila for Deferasirox tablets marketing
On July 7, 2018, Drug firm Zydus Cadila announced that got tentative nod from the US health regulator USFDA to market Deferasirox tablets for oral suspension.
i. The tablet is used to treat high levels of iron in the body caused by multiple blood transfusions or non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia.
ii. It would be available in the strengths of 125 mg, 250 mg and 500 mg.
iii. The product will be manufactured at the group’s facility at SEZ, Ahmedabad.
iv. The estimated sale os Deferasirox tablets is USD 150.3 million.
About Zydus Cadila:
The group now has 202 approvals and has so far filed over 330 abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) since the commencement of the filing process in 2003-04.


Law Commission recommends regulated and taxable gambling, betting on sports
On 5th July 2018, The Law Commission recommended that gambling and betting on sports, including cricket, to be allowed as regulated activities taxable under the direct and indirect tax regimes and used as a source for attracting foreign direct investment (FDI).
Law Commission recommends regulated and taxable gambling, betting on sports;
i. The commission’s report, Legal Framework: Gambling and Sports Betting including Cricket in India has recommended various changes in the law for regulating betting and generating tax revenues from it.
ii. The Parliament might also enact a model law for regulating gambling that would be adopted by the states or Parliament might legislate in exercise of its powers under Articles 249 or 252 of the Constitution.
iii. If legislation is made under Article 252, states other than the consenting states can freely adopt the same.
iv. The commission has also recommended linking Aadhar or PAN card of an individual indulging in betting and gambling. This would make the transaction cashless and regulate illegal activities like money laundering.
v. The commission has also recommended amending the laws regulating forex and India’s FDI policy to allow investments in the casino and online gaming industry.
About Twenty-First Law Commission:
♦ Tenure – 1st September 2015 – 31st August 2018
♦ Chairman – Dr. Justice Balbir Singh Chauhan

Mahendra Singh Dhoni reaches coveted milestone of playing 500 international matches
On 7th July 2018, cricketer Mahendra Singh Dhoni reached the milestone of playing 500 international matches during the second T20 International against England.

Mahendra Singh Dhoni reaches coveted milestone of playing 500 international matchesMahendra Singh Dhoni reaches milestone of playing 500 international matches:
i. Mahendra Singh Dhoni has become the 3rd Indian after Sachin Tendulkar (664) and Rahul Dravid (509) to reach this milestone of playing 500 international cricket matches.
ii. This T20 International match against England was Mahendra Singh Dhoni’s 92nd T20 match. He has played 90 Test matches and 318 One Day International matches.
Some important stadiums in India:
♦ Moin-ul-Haq Stadium – Patna, Bihar
♦ Patliputra Sports Complex – Patna, Bihar
♦ Rajendra Stadium – Siwan, Bihar


Kumaoni folk singer Kabutari Devi dies
On 7th July 2018, popular Kumaoni folk singer Kabutari Devi died following a heart attack, at a hospital in Uttarakhand.
Death of Kabutari Devi:
i. Kabutari Devi was 70 years old. Her songs expressed the struggles in the life of Pahari women.
ii. She made her first performance at All India Radio, Lucknow in the 1980s. She has received various awards including from the Ministry of Culture, Government of Uttarakhand.
Some National Parks in Uttarakhand:
♦ Nanda Devi National Park
♦ Rajaji National Park
♦ Valley of Flowers National Park


World Chocolate Day – July 7
On 7th July 2018, World Chocolate Day was celebrated all over the world.
World Chocolate Day:
i. World Chocolate Day is celebrated every year on 7th July 2018. This day is said to be commercially celebrated since 2009.
ii. Cocoa is obtained from the fruit of cocoa trees that are native to Central and South America.
iii. It is said that chocolate was introduced in Europe in 1550. Until then it was known only to the natives of Mexico and parts of central and South America.
iv. World Chocolate Day is celebrated by consuming chocolate and performing other fun activities.
Some lakes in India:
♦ Hebbal Lake – Karnataka
♦ Kempambudhi Lake – Karnataka
♦ Lalbagh Lake – Karnataka

International Day of Cooperatives – 7 July
On 7th July 2018, International Co-operative Day or International Day of Co-operatives was observed throughout the world.

International Day of Cooperatives - 7 JulyInternational Day of Cooperatives:
i. The International Day of Cooperatives is celebrated on the first Saturday of July annually.
ii. International Day of Cooperatives was celebrated for the first time in July 1923 by the international cooperative movement and the International Co-operative Alliance.
iii. It was celebrated as the UN International Day of Co-operatives for the first time in 1995.
iv. The aim of this day is to create awareness on cooperatives and promote international solidarity, economic efficiency, equality, and world peace.
v. This day also aims to strengthen and extend partnerships between the international cooperative movement and governments, at local, national and international levels.
vi. The theme for International Day of Cooperatives 2018 is: “sustainable consumption and production of goods and services”. The Slogan is: Sustainable societies through cooperation.
About International Labour Organization (ILO):
♦ Director-General – Guy Ryder
♦ Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland