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Amendments to Aadhaar bill approved by the cabinet
Official amendments to Aadhaar and Other Laws (Amendment) Bill 2019 was approved by the Union Cabinet. It will enable the states to use the Unique Identity Number in the distribution of subsidies.
Through this amendment, it is expected that the states will be able to disburse subsidies to the needy and also curb fraud to the 128 crore people who have been issued Aadhaar card. It will amend Aadhaar and Other Laws (Amendment) Bill.
The bill states that an individual person’s identity via Aadhaar, for provision of any service probably made mandatory by the law of parliament.
♦ Ceo- Ajay Bhushan Pandey
♦ Headquarters– New Delhi
♦ Founded- 28 November 2009
♦ Ministry- Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, India
Amendment to RTI act, 2005 approved by the parliament
The amendment in RTI Act, which gives power to the government to decide the salary and service terms of statutory body head and its members, is approved by the government after Rajya Sabha passed the RTI Amendment Bill, 2019 by a voice vote. It was negated by 117 members voting against the motion and 75 members voting in favour. It will amend Right to Information Act (RTI), 2005.
About Amendment: To provide that the term of office of, and the salaries, allowances and other terms and conditions of service of, the Chief Information Commissioner and Information Commissioners and the State Chief Information Commissioner and the State Information Commissioners, shall be such as may be prescribed by the Central Government.
♦ The act was passed by the government on June 15, 2005, and came to force on October 13, 2005.
♦ Its purpose is to allow citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities to promote transparency.
♦ The mastermind behind RTI act 2005 was Aruna Roy
♦ Territorial extent-Whole of India except for Jammu and Kashmir
PM-LVMY Yojana launched by Labour ministry
Pradhan Mantri Laghu Vyapari Maan-Dhan Yojana (PM-LVMY) was launched by the Union labour and Employment ministry for retailers and small traders. This scheme provides a minimum monthly pension of Rs 3000/month to small shopkeepers, retail traders, and the self-employed people after they attain 60years of age. It is an extension of Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-dhan (PM-SYM).
i. Self-employed people, small shopkeepers and retail traders aged between 18-40 years and with Goods and Service Tax (GST) turnover below Rs 1.5 crore can avail the scheme.
ii. The above eligible persons should not be covered under the National Pension Scheme, Employees’ State Insurance Scheme, and Employees Provident Fund or be an Income Taxpayer (assessee).
i. Amount of contribution is age-specific.
ii. It is a 50:50 basis scheme where the government contributes an equal amount as that of the contribution made by the subscriber.
The scheme can be enrolled by interested persons through Common Service Centres(CSC) spread across the country.
i. The enrollment based on self-declaration, only requires the person to possess a savings account and Adhaar number.
Ministry of labour and employment
♦ MoS (independent charge)– Santhosh Gangwar
♦ Headquarters- New Delhi.
♦ It was launched on July 1, 2017.
Rural Development Ministry implements Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana
On July 23,2019, Union Minister for Rural Development, Narendra Singh Tomar stated that the ministry is implementing Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM) across the country with the aim of organizing the rural poor women into Self Help Groups (SHGs), and continuously supporting them to take economic activities till they come out of poverty and reach an good-level of increase in income to improve their quality of life.
Rashtriya Aajeevika Mission
i. About: It is a poverty alleviation scheme launched in 2011 as National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) and was succeeded by Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana in 2016.
Sub-schemes under DAY-NRLM
i. Rural Self Employment Training Institutes (RSETIs): It allows a trainee to take bank credit and start his/her own business.
ii. Start-up Village Entrepreneurship Programme (SVEP): It aims at facilitating rural poor for setting up micro-enterprises.
iii. Aajeevika Grameen Express Yojana (AGEY): It aims to facilitate transport facilities in the rural areas which also provides self-employment opportunities to the rural poor.
Committee to examine FDI issue in e-commerce constituted by the government
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in e-commerce in recent times became a confusing/complex network to understand. Hence the government set up a separate committee to examine issues related to FDI in e-commerce.
The committee is constituted under additional secretary level officer of Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT).
i. Other members to examine issues related to FDI issues in e-commerce are members from the Department of Commerce, Department of Consumer Affairs, Department of Legal Affairs and ministry of MSME.
ii. New FDI policy states that a vendor is considered “controlled” by an online eMarketplace operator if more than 25% of its Merchandise from an entity related to the eMarketplace is sourced.
iii. This policy came into effect on February 1, 2019
iv. 100% FDI under automatic route in the Marketplace model of e-commerce is allowed currently, but investment in the inventory based model of e-commerce is prohibited.
The aim of the move is to target the deep discounts offered by the Ecommerce marketplaces having heavy war chest like Amazon, Flipkart to level the playing field with local retailers.
It was previously known as Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPAM). The parent agency of DPIIT is Ministry of Commerce and industry where Piyush Goyal is the current union Commerce Minister
A Foreign Direct Investment is an investment the form of controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
India conducted 1st ever simulated space war exercise,” IndSpaceEx” in New Delhi
The three armed forces of India (Army, Navy, and Air Force) conducted 1st ever simulated space warfare exercise called “IndSpaceEx” on July 25, 26, 2019. It was started in New Delhi. The 2-day exercise aims to assess requisite space and counter-space capabilities that are needed by India. It will also help India to better grasp strategic challenges in space that need to be handled.
i. IndSpaceEx: Participants from DRDO(Defence Research and Development Organisation), academia and think tanks took part in it. It helps to assess capabilities India needs to ensure that it can protect its space assets. It will also help to better understand possible challenges in space warfare and a major threat to India’s national security interest.
ii. Collaboration: The forces working in collaboration with the Defence Space research agency which has been created to provide new capabilities to the defence forces in space warfare.
iii. Background: This initiative comes after India successfully tested an anti-satellite (A-Sat) missile under ‘Mission Shakti’ and initiated raising of a new tri-service Defence Space Agency.
Anti Satellite(A-Sat) Weapon has a capacity to incapacitate or destroy satellites for strategic military purposes. Only the United States, Russia, China, and India have demonstrated this capability successfully. ASATs are of two types, Kinetic and Non-Kinetic.
ICMR in partnership with Population Council launches National Data Quality Forum in New Delhi
On July 24,2019, The Oldest medical research body, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)’s National Institute for Medical Statistics (ICMR-NIMS), in partnership with Population Council (an international non-profit NGO that conducts research in biomedicine and social science) launched the National Data Quality Forum (NDQF) in New Delhi to improve quality of health and demographic data in India.
i. It will integrate learning’s from scientific and evidence-based initiatives and guide actions through periodic workshops and conferences.
ii. NDQF’s activities will help towards establishing protocols and good practices when dealing with data collection, storage, use, and dissemination that can be applied to health and demographic data, as well as replicated across other industries and sectors also.
iii. It aims to generate meaningful dialogue around the improvement of data quality in general, and for health and medical research in particular.
iv. It will be guided by the direction provided by a high-level steering committee and operationalized with the help of a technical advisory group.
About the National Institute for Medical Statistics:
i. It was established in 1977 with the mandate is to provide technical expertise on research methodology, program evaluation, mathematical modeling, data analysis, etc.
ii. It is one of the permanent institutes of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi.
iii. It is India’s only institute to coordinate and standardize the collection of medical and health statistics in the country.
Uttar Pradesh becomes No.1 in implementation of Pradhanamntri Suraksha Beema Yojna in the country
The State Government of Uttar Pradesh(UP) has become number one in implementation of ambitious central government scheme Pradhanamntri Suraksha Beema Yojna. Totally 1.95 crores people have been given insurance cover under the scheme till 31 march 2019 in the state.
i. The state implemented this scheme starting from January 2018. Under it, people between the age group of 18 to 70 with bank accounts get an accidental insurance cover of rupees 2 lakh by paying an annual premium of 12 rupees.
ii. The sate holds the second spot in the implementation of Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Beema Yojana, another flagship scheme of the central Government.
About Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Beema Yojana:
It is a government-backed Life insurance scheme launched on 9 May 2015. It is available to people between 18 and 50 years of age with bank accounts get an accidental insurance cover of rupees 2 lakh by paying an annual premium of 330 rupees.
Governor: Anandiben Patel
Chief Minister: Yogi Adityanath
Combat veteran, Dr Samir Rawat first officer invited to Congress of Psychology in Prague in 2020
Lt.Col. Dr. Samir Rawat, a military psychologist who was also in ‘operation Vijay’ conducted by the Indian army in Kargil, has been invited as the keynote speaker to give a speech on psychology at the 32nd International Congress of Psychology(ICP) in Prague, Czech Republic, in which over 8000 delegates are participating in the biggest international event.
♦ Founded- 1 April 1895
♦ Motto- service before self
♦ Commander in Chief- President Ram Nath Govind
♦ Headquarters- New Delhi.
♦ Chief of army staff- General Bipin Rawat.
Delhi among cheapest cities to relocate: Moving Price Index 2019
According to the study named “Moving Price Index 2019” conducted by relocation experts from Movinga (German online platform-based moving company), Delhi is among the world’s cheapest cities to move to. Delhi was ranked 85th in terms of individual relocation & 84th rank in family relocation on the Index, a study of 85 cities that takes a number of parameters into account as a foundation for its findings, including transportation, food and drink, phone bills, rent cost (temporary and permanent), storage fees and internet connection.
i. San Francisco was ranked as the most expensive city in the world to relocate to as an individual and as a Family.
ii. The index ranked from most expensive to least expensive based on the total costs incurred over the first three months for an individual to settle into a new city.
iii. Moving to delhi could cost for individual location is $1735, for family relocation $4232 & for individual by expensive type include phone bills($2),rent at temporary home($392),rent at permanent residence($182) and for internet connection it is $4.
Here’s the rank of cities for individual relocation:
|1st||San Francisco||United State($13,531)|
|2nd||New York||United States($12,041)|
Here’s the rank of cities for family relocation:
|1st||San Francisco||United State($24,004)|
♦ Founded: 2015
♦ Founders: Bastian Knutzen, Chris Maslowski
♦ CEO: Finn Age Hansel
BANKING & FINANCE
RBI panel recommends an increase in collateral-free lending, MUDRA loan limit to Rs 20 lakh: Nitin Gadkari
On July 25, 2019, The Union Minister for MSMEs(Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises), Nitin Gadkari stated that a panel of RBI(Reserve Bank of India) has recommended an increase in the collateral-free lending limit to Rs 20 lakh for MSMEs and self-help groups(SHG). The panel also recommended revision of loan limit sanctioned under MUDRA (Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency) to Rs 20 lakh from Rs 10 lakh.
i. Registration: He also informed that 22.83 lakh micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) has registered themselves in the “Udyog Aadhaar Portal”( a 12 digit Unique Identification Number provided by the Ministry of MSME) between March 2018 and March 2019.
ii. Helping schemes: MSME ministries financial assistance is also provided under the schemes under the Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Program (PMEGP). Apart from this, the credit guarantee scheme and credit linked capital subsidy scheme for MSME are also being run.
iii. MSME portal: The government has decided to launch a portal on the lines of Alibaba(China) and Amazon (US) for selling products manufactured by small industries. Through this portal, the ministry is expected to earn revenue of 10 lakh crore in the next two years.
iv. Government banks have sanctioned 36,000 loans under the ‘psbloansin59minutes’ portal, a loan of 8.5 % interest can be given from 1 lakh to 5 crores.
♦ Headquarters: Mumbai
♦ Founded: 1 April 1935
♦ Governor: Shaktikanta Das
Bankruptcy board tightens norms governing resolution professionals
On July 24, 2019, Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI), the regulator for overseeing insolvency proceedings has tightened norms governing resolution professionals wherein restrictions will also be in place for their relatives from taking up employment after completion of a resolution process. They would also be barred from having employment when they are in possession of authorization to take up work under the insolvency law.
Other amendments by the IBBI (related to insolvency professionals): It includes,
i. The bankruptcy professionals should not undertake any assignment unless he/she holds an ‘Authorisation for Assignment’ issued by insolvency professional agency concerned. This provision effective from January 1, 2020, is applicable for an individual acting as an interim resolution professional, resolution professional, liquidator, bankruptcy trustee, authorized representative or in any other role under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC), 2016.
ii. Insolvency professionals or his/her relatives should not accept any employment, from certain entities for one year after completion of a particular resolution process.
iii. An insolvency professional shall not engage or appoint any of his relatives or related parties, for or in connection with any work relating to his assignment.
Amendments related to the governing board of insolvency professional agencies:
i. An insolvency professional agency shall issue/ renew an ‘Authorisation for Assignment’ to insolvency professionals in accordance with its bye-laws.
ii. An individual would be permitted to serve as an independent director on the governing board of an insolvency professional agency up to the age of 75 years.
♦ Formation: 1 October 2016
♦ Headquarters: New Delhi
♦ Chairperson: M. S. Sahoo
BUSINESS & ECONOMY
AAI signed up with Aireon for aircraft surveillance over the Indian ocean
On July 25,2019, A statutory body working under the Ministry of Civil Aviation, Airports Authority of India(AAI) has signed MoU (memorandum of understanding) with Aireon, USA, a global aircraft tracking body, for implementation of Space-Based Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast data (ADS-B) services for the oceanic regions of the Indian flight information regions (FIRs).
i. The agreement was signed by Mansoor Ahmed of Airports Authority of India and Don Thoma, President and CEO, Aireon.
ii. The MoU provides AAI surveillance coverage of regions in the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean, representing 6 million sq km.
iii. The present surveillance technology covers only terrestrial airspace and has limited coverage over oceanic regions. But the ADS-B services will provide the real-time surveillance of airplanes over oceans falling in Indian Airspace.
iv. The estimated cost for provisioning of these services is Rs.114 crores per year. The AAI plans to start trial operations of these services from January 2020.
Founded: 1 April 1995
Headquarters: New Delhi
Chairman: Guruprasad Mohapatra
Headquarters: McLean, Virginia, USA
it manufactures, deploys, and operates a global aircraft tracking and surveillance system utilizing satellite-based receivers to monitor the existing ADS-B transmissions of aircraft, for global air traffic surveillance.
NITI Aayog and WhatsApp partners to promote women entrepreneurs
A partnership between NITI Aayog and WhatsApp has been announced to support the growth of the ecosystem to promote women entrepreneurs in India under the aegis of Women Entrepreneurship Platform (WEP).
i. A coffee table book was launched by WhatsApp in New Delhi named “Gateway To A Billion Opportunities” which is a collection of impactful stories from across India.
i. WhatsApp will partner with Women Transforming India (WTI) awards 2019 which is a flagship initiative of NITI Aayog.
ii. The WTI winners will be provided support amounting to $100,000 by WhatsApp.
iii. The awards are organized in partnership with the United Nations.
Women Entrepreneurship Platform (WEP)
i. It was launched by NITI Aayog in the year 2018.
ii. It helps women across India to make their dream of becoming entrepreneurs come true.
♦ CEO- Amitabh Kant
♦ Vice-chairman- Rajiv Kumar
♦ WhatsApp global head- Will Cathcart
APPOINTMENTS & RESIGNS
BS Yediyurappa sworn-in as Chief Minister of Karnataka
On 26th July 2019, Karnataka’s Bharatiya Janata Party(BJP) state President Bookanakere Siddalingapp (BS) Yediyurappa was sworn in as the 19th Chief Minister of Karnataka. He succeeded H. D. Kumaraswamy of Janata Dal (Secular) party.
ii. Previously he served as the Chief Minister of Karnataka for 3 times viz, 12th to 19th November 2007, 30th May 2008 to 31st July 2011 & 17th to 19th May 2018.
iii. He is popularly known as “Raithara Bandhu” for his pro-farmer policies, initiatives like separate agriculture budget in Karnataka Government during his chief ministership.
iv. In 2014, he merged his party with the BJP and was subsequently elected to the 16th Lok Sabha from the Shimoga constituency.
♦ Governor – Vajubhai Vala
♦ Chief Minister -B. S. Yediyurappa
♦ Economy – 4th largest state economy in India.
♦ List of Dams- Almatti Dam, Basava Sagara Dam(Narayanpur Dam), Linganamakki Dam, Kadra Dam.
♦ List of Stadiums- Sree Kanteerava Stadium, Srikantadatta Narasimha Raja Wadeyar Ground, M Chinnaswamy Stadium.
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
IIT Kharagpur Students developed an app ‘CARE4U’ for elderly people
IIT (Indian Institute of Technology ) Kharagpur students have developed an android-based app called ‘CARE4U’ aims to provide better elderly care practices. The app connects the elderly person to the caregiver. It will inform the caregiver when the elderly person falls down with the exact location by using a neural network-based fall detection algorithm.
i. Detection: The app also detects emotions, taking a picture and calculating the mood index of the person when the elderly open the app. It detects whether the person is sad or not and automatically updates the caregiver.
ii. Cognitive intelligent chatbot: To make mood index more effective the team has developed a cognitive intelligent chatbot for the elderly person to engage with.
iii. Machine learning: No cloud service is needed as all other machine learning models run on mobile itself.
iv. Medicine Reminder: The app also has a medicine reminder feature, that helps both the elderly person as well as the caregiver that it is time for their medicine.
v. Record: The app has a record of medical histories, allergies’ account, an SOS(Save Our Souls) button, etc.
China’s Tiangong-2 spacecraft destroyed upon its controlled re-entry into Earth’s atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean
On July 19, 2019, According to the China Space Agency, China’s experimental space lab “Tiangong-2” was destroyed upon its controlled re-entry into Earth’s atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean. The space state was retired from service after it had completed its experiments in space. During the re-entry phase, most of Tiangong-2 had burnt up in the atmosphere and its remaining debris fell near Point Nemo, the most remote location on Earth.
i. It is an improved version of Tiangong-1, China’s first space station, which crashed into the southern Pacific Ocean in April 2018.
ii. It was China’s second experimental space station module launched in September 2016 part as part of China’s space station program (Project 921-2 ) aimed at placing Chinese large modular space station in Low Earth orbit (LEO) by 2022.
iii. It has docked with the Shenzhou-11 manned spaceship and Tianzhou-1 cargo spacecraft.
President: Xi Jinping
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FIFA rankings: India drops two places to 103
On 25th July 2019, Federation Internationale de Football Association(FIFA) has released its ranking for the year 2019. Belgium leads the overall FIFA rankings, followed by Brazil, France, England, and Uruguay.
ii. Among Asian Countries, Iran topped the ranking. Iran ranked 23rd globally followed by Japan (33), Korea (37), Australia (46) and Qatar (62).
About Fédération Internationale de Football Association(FIFA):
♦ President – Gianni Infantino
♦ Headquarters – Zürich, Switzerland
Indian Cricketers‘ Association approved by BCCI will consist of former Indian cricketers
On July 24, 2019, The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) has approved the Indian Cricketers’ Association (ICA), which is formed as per the board’s new constitution to look after the interest of former players.
i. The ICA is not affiliated to Federation of International Cricketers’ Association (FICA) and is only for former men and women cricketers, unlike the players’ associations in most countries.
ii. The BCCI board recognizes the ICA, a non-profit company limited by guarantee incorporated on July 5, 2019, under Section 8 of the Companies Act, 2013.
iii. Until further notice of the BCCI, no entity will be accorded recognition by the BCCI other than the ICA. The ICA’s function will be independent of BCCI’s functioning & it will have to generate its own funds even the board will provide some initial grants.
iv. Kapil Dev, Ajit Agarkar, and Shantha Rangaswamy are the directors at ICA now until elections are held.
Headquarters: Mumbai, Maharashtra
Interim President: Vinod Rai
Chief Executive: Rahul Johri
Nuwan Kulasekara, Sri Lanka pacer retires from international cricket
Sri Lanka pacer, Kulasekara Mudiyanselage Dinesh Nuwan Kulasekara aged 37 announced retirement from international cricket. He hails from Nittambuwa, Sri Lanka.
ii. He was the third-highest wicket-taker among his country’s pace bowlers after Chaminda Vaas and Lasith Malinga.
iii. He was one of Sri Lanka’s heroes during their victorious 2014 World T20 campaign in which he took eight wickets in six matches at an economy rate of 6.42.
iv. He had 199 scalps in 184 ODIs while he took another 66 wickets in 58 T20 matches in a career spanning over 15 years. He also played 21 Tests for the island nation taking 48 wickets.
President of Tunisia, Beji Caid Essebsi passed away in Carthage, Tunisia
On 25th July 2019, The President of Tunisia and the North African country’s first democratically elected leader, Beji Caid Essebsi passed away at the age of 92 in Tunis, Tunisia after suffering from a severe health crisis. He was born in Sidi Bou Said, Tunisia.
ii. He also served as the 18th Prime Minister of Tunisia from 28 February to 24 December 2011.
iii. He also served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Tunisia from April 1981 to September 1986.
iii. In his political career, he was associated in three political parties viz, Neo Destour/PSD/RCD (1941–2005), Independent (2011–2012), Nidaa Tounes (2012–2019).
iv. He received various awards in Tunisia and from foreign countries like Algeria, Bahrain, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Italy, Malta, Palestine, Sweden & Turkey.
v. Recently he received Collar of the Order of Abdulaziz Al Saud from Saudi Arabia.
♦ Capital: Tunis Dialing
♦ Currency: Tunisian dinar
Dutch film legend Rutger Hauer passed away at 75
Dutch Actor Rutger Hauer, who was best known for his role in the 1982 film “Blade Runner” has passed away after a short illness. He was 75.
ii. His career began in 1969 with the title role in the Dutch television series Floris. He also appeared in films such as ‘Sin City’ and ‘Batman Begins’, ‘The Osterman Weekend’ and ‘Ladyhawke’.
Kargil Vijay Diwas celebrated on July 26, 2019
On July 26, 2019, the 20th anniversary of Kargil Vijay Diwas was celebrated throughout India to commemorate India’s victory over Pakistan in the 1999 Kargil War. This day marks the victory of Indian armed forces in Operation Vijay in 1999 & honors the martyrs who sacrificed their lives for India in the Kargil War. The theme for Kargil Vijay Diwas 2019 was “Remember, Rejoice and Renew”.
i. Kargil Vijay Diwas celebrations started on 14th July 2019 at the Drass War Memorial in Kargil town in Jammu and Kashmir.
ii. On this day, an exhibition of ‘Monuments of Valour & Victory Homage to Kargil Warriors’ was inaugurated by Prahlad Singh Patel, Union Culture Minister.
iii. Defence Minister Rajnath Singh paid tribute to the martyrs by laying a wreath at the National War Memorial (NWM) in New Delhi on this occasion.
iv. Border guarding forces like the Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) and the Border Security Force (BSF) organized a five-kilometer run as a part of week-long celebration & Indo-Tibetan Border Police Organised ‘Run For Martyr’ in Amritsar, Punjab.
v. Prime Minister Narendra Modi paid tributes to the brave soldiers of the Indian Army.
iv. President Ram Nath Kovind, who is also the Supreme Commander of the armed forces, paid tributes at Chinar Corps(15 corps) Headquarters, Badamibag at Srinagar.
About Indian Army:
Motto: “Service Before Self”
Headquarters: New Delhi
Chief of the Army Staff: General Bipin Rawat
Statewide tree plantation programme launched by Arunachal Pradesh CM Pema Khandu
The campaign Clean-Green Arunachal Campaign 2019 was launched in Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh by CM Pema Khandu to plant 1 lakh tree saplings within the next 24 hour. The campaign was held as part of VanMahotsav celebration which plans to plant 1crore trees within the next 5 years.
i. Deputy Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh Chowna Mein, urban development minister Kamlung Mossang along with all the dignitaries and school children were present at the ceremonial plantation drive
♦ The Geographical Survey of India (GSI) recently revealed that Arunachal Pradesh as 35% of India’s graphite deposits. It is considered one of the eighteen ‘biodiversity hotspots’ in the world.
♦ National parks- Namdapha National park, Mouling National Park.
♦ Wildlife sanctuaries- Pakhui wildlife sanctuary, mehao wildlife sanctuary, Daying Ering wildlife sanctuary.
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