We are here for you to provide the important Current Affairs December 8 2018, which have unique updates of all daily events from all newspapers such as The Hindu, The Economic Times, PIB, Times of India, PTI, Indian Express, Business Standard and all Government official websites.
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Cabinet Approvals on 6th December,2018
- Cabinet approved Amendment of the Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial Act, 1951
- Cabinet approved Agriculture Export Policy, 2018 to double agri exports
- Cabinet approved implementation of Shahpurkandi Dam (National Project) on river Ravi in Punjab with central assistance of Rs.485.38 crore
- Cabinet approved National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems, worth Rs. 3660 crores, for 5 years
- Cabinet approved sale of the Government’s existing 52.63% of total equity shareholding in Rural Electrification Corporation to Power Finance Corporation along with transfer of management control…………………Click here to Read more
Cabinet Approvals with Foreign Countries on December 6, 2018
- Cabinet approved MoC between India and Japan in the field of Environmental Cooperation
- Cabinet approved MoC between India and Japan for Cooperation in the Postal field
- Cabinet approved Memorandum of Cooperation between India and Japan in the field of Healthcare and Wellness
- Cabinet approved revised Model MoU between India and foreign Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) for exchange of information
- Cabinet approved MoU between India and the USA concerning Scientific and Technical Cooperation in the Earth Sciences
- Cabinet approved MoU between India and France in the field of energy efficiency / energy conservation
- Cabinet approved MoU between India and Tajikistan on Cooperation on Peaceful uses of Space Technology for Development
- Cabinet approved MoU between India and Russia on Joint Activities under Human Spaceflight Programme
- Cabinet approved MoU between India and Zimbabwe for cooperation in the field of geology, mining and mineral resources
- Cabinet approved Agreement between India and Uzbekistan on Cooperation in the exploration and uses of Outer Space for peaceful purposes
- Cabinet approved MoU between India and Morocco for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space
- Cabinet approved Agreement between India and Algeria on Cooperation in the field of Space Sciences, Technologies and Applications
- Cabinet approved MoU between India and Armenia on joint issue of postage stamp…………………….Click here to Read more
Shri Radha Mohan Singh laid Foundation stone of PUSA ‘Kisan Haat’ in ICAR’s Agriculture Technology Information Centre (ATIC) in New Delhi
On 6th December 2018, Shri Radha Mohan Singh, Union Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Minister laid the Foundation stone of Pusa Kisan Haat in Indian Council of Agricultural Research’s (ICAR) Agricultural Technology Information Centre (ATIC) in New Delhi.
SC approved Centre’s draft of India’s First Witness Protection Scheme 2018
On December 5, 2018, the Supreme court bench of Justices A.K. Sikri and S. Abdul Nazeer approved the draft of India’s First Witness Protection Scheme 2018 to ensure security to the witness.This Scheme was drafted by the Ministry of Home Affairs.The draft has been asked to be implemented across all states with immediate effect.
i. The draft witness protection scheme, finalised in consultation with the National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) and Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPRD), has three categories of witnesses based on the threat perception.
- Category A: Those cases where threat extends to life of witness or family members during investigation, trial or even thereafter.
- Category B: Those cases where the threat extends to safety, reputation or property of the witness or family members during the investigation or trial.
- Category C: Cases where the threat is moderate and extends to harassment or intimidation of the witness or his family members, reputation or property during the investigation, trial or thereafter.
ii. The protection measures shall be proportionate to the threat and for a specific duration not exceeding three months at a time.
iii.Under the scheme, the applications will be dealt by a competent district authority consisting of:
- The district and sessions judge as Chairman,
- The head of the police as member and
- Head of the prosecution as the member secretary.
iv.Applications will be disposed of in five days with an assessment of the threat perception by the local police.
v.There will also be a Witness Protection Fund to bear the expenses incurred in protecting a witness.
The issue of witness protection scheme had cropped up earlier when the top court was hearing a public interest litigation (PIL) seeking protection for witnesses in rape cases involving self-styled preacher Asaram Bapu.
Ministry of Home Affairs:
♦ Union Minister: Shri. Rajnath Singh.
♦ Minister of State: Shri. Kiren Rijiju, Shri. Hansraj Gangaram Ahir.
Centre approves SCord to tackle smuggling
The Central Government has approved Anti-Smuggling National Coordination Centre (SCord) under the Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) to tackle Smuggling.
i. Scord will help India to formulate a national anti-smuggling policy to tackle Smuggling on real time basis.
ii. Border Agencies BSF, Assam Rifles, ITBP, SSB and Coast Guards would be member of SCord and all organization be coordinate with each other on real time basis.
Three Day annual India Water Impact Summit 2018 held in New Delhi
On December 5, 2018, Union Minister for Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation Shri Nitin Gadkari inaugurated 3-day annual India Water Impact Summit 2018 in New Delhi. It concluded on December 7, 2018.
To discuss, debate and develop model solutions for some of the biggest water related problems in the country.
i. It was jointly organized by:
- The National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) and
- The Centre for Ganga River Basin Management and Studies(cGanga).
ii.The theme for the 2018 version was: ‘Showcasing and Enhancing Impacts of National and International Efforts on Ganga Rejuvenation.’
iii. The Summit had 3 aspects or themes:
- Spotlights on 5 states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Delhi and Bihar for their efforts to rejuvenate Ganga.
- Introduction of Ganga Financing Forum to act as a common knowledge, information and partnership platform. It is a Hybrid Annuity Model that would be used to enhance the economic landscape of water and waste-water treatment in India.
- It will bring together financial institutions and investors interested in Namami Ganga programmes.Implementation of the pilot/demonstration programme, known as the Environment Technology Verification (ETV) process, to enable submission of solutions from technology and innovation companies addressing the problems prevalent in the river basin.
iv. Furthermore, there were sessions on:Afforestation and Biodiversity, Urban River/Water Management Plans, Creating a Global Ecosystem for financing the Ganga Rejuvenation Programme.
v. Nearly 200 domestic and international participants from nearly 15 countries and more than 50 Central, State and Municipal Government representatives participated in the Summit.
National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG):
♦ Director General: Shri Rajiv Ranjan Mishra.
♦ Headquarters: New Delhi.
Two day Regional Customs Enforcement Meeting (RCEM) held in New Delhi
On 4th and 5th December 2018, Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) conducted 2 day Regional Customs Enforcement Meeting (RCEM) organized at Dr. Ambedkar International Centre in New Delhi.
i.Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI),observed its 61st Founding Day on 4th December,2018.
ii. In the meeting extensive discussions were held regarding mutual strategy to counter crime related to drugs, precious metals and stones, money laundering and black economy.
iii. Union Finance Minister Mr. Arun Jaitley was the chief guest of the RCEM.He awarded the DRI Martyr’s Medal to Late Shri L. D. Arora, Additional Commissioner of Customs and Central Excise, who laid down his life in service to the Nation while working against the underworld responsible for the Mumbai blasts of 1993. He also appreciated DRI’s initiative to honour its ex-officers for exemplary service with the ‘DRI Utkrisht Seva Samman’.
iv. During the Meeting, emphasis was made on sharing data and intelligence between the Custom Administrations.
New Vehicles to be Pre-Fitted with High Security Registration plates from April, 2019
The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways notified amendments to central Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989 and announced that all new vehicles will be sold pre-fitted with the high-security registration plates from 1st April 2019.
The High Security Registration plates helps in keeping track of the vehicle so that lost or stolen vehicles can be traced.
IWAI announced Kolkata-Patna as India’s second Container Cargo sector and Ministry of Shipping approves Rs 156 Crore Freight Village in Varanasi
On 6th December 2018, Ministry of shipping had approved Rs 156 Crore Freight Village in Varanasi adjoining Inland Waterways Terminal at River Ganga. Apart from that After the Success of container cargo being shipped form Kolkata to Varanasi,Inland Waterways Authority of India(IWAI) Kolkata-Patna has become India’s Second Inland Water Transport(IWT) origin destination pair for containerized cargo movement on National Waterway-1.
i. Ministry of Shipping is developing 1390 km National Waterway – 1 on River Ganga under Jal Marg Vikas Project (JMVP) from Haldia to Varanasi with the assistance of World Bank at an estimated cost of Rs 5369 Crore.
ii. The Varanasi Freight Village is a designated area where facilities for various modes of transportation, distribution of goods and other logistics operations will be available in a synchronized manner on a large scale.
iii. Bihar Capital Patna will witness a new landmark in India’s Inland Water Transport (IWT) sector with 16 TEUs of Container Cargo from food giants PepsiCo India and Emami Agrotech Ltd reaching Gaighat IWT terminal from Kolkata on river Ganga.
About Ministry of Shipping
♦ Union Minister: Nitin Gadkari
♦ Minister of State: Pon Radhakrishnan and Mansukh L. Mandaviya
♦ Governor: Ram Naik
♦ Chief Minister: Yogi Adityanath
♦ Major Dam: Rihand (Rihand River, a tributary of Son River)
♦ Governor: Lal Ji Tandon
♦ Chief Minister: Nitish Kumar
♦ Major Dams: Kohira Dam (Kohira River) and Nagi Dam (Nagi River)
Four Day 1st International conference on bears held in Agra, UP
On December 3, 2018, a four day 1st International Conference on Bears commenced in Agra, Uttar Pradesh. It concluded on December 6, 2018.
To share knowledge on principles of welfare of bears and other wild animals in zoos, sanctuaries and rescue centres.
i. It was organized by Wildlife SOS, a conservation non-profit organisation in collaboration with Bear Care Group from the US and Canada.
ii. The conference focused on bear care, wildlife conservation and human wildlife conflict mitigation.
iii. More than 80 delegates from 11 countries participated in the conference.
iv. The international delegates have came from the US, Canada, Australia, the UK, France, Germany, Demark, the Netherlands, Vietnam etc.
Headquarters: New Delhi.
Annual Global Venture Capital Summit 2018 held in Goa
On December 7, 2018, the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) in the Ministry of Commerce and Industry and the Government of Goa hosted the annual #startupindia Global Venture Capital Summit in Goa.
To showcase the India opportunity, increase capital flow for Indian startups and further promote ease of doing business.
i. The theme of the Summit was: ‘Mobilizing Global Capital for Innovation in India.’
ii. The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a sister organisation of the World Bank Group, Invest India and the Indian Private Equity and Venture Capital Association (IVCA) were the partners for this initiative.
iii. Participation came from around 100 funds from countries like United States of America, China,Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore.
iii. Government of Goa through its participation aims to make the state, one of the most preferred start-up destinations in India, and one of the top 25 start-up destinations in Asia by 2025.
India has the world’s third largest startup base with more than 14,000 recognized Startups.
♦ Chief Minister: Manohar Parrikar.
♦ Governor: Smt. Mridula Sinha.
♦ Wildlife sanctuary: Cotigao Wildlife sanctuary, Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary, Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary, Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary, Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary, Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary.
Indian Coast Guard conducted Exercise ‘Clean Sea-2018’ at sea off Port Blair
On December 6, 2018, the Indian Coast Guard conducted the Regional Level Marine Oil Pollution Response Exercise titled ‘Clean Sea – 2018’ at sea off Port Blair, Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
i. It was conducted under
- Observation of: Inspector General Maneesh V Pathak, Commander Coast Guard Region (Andaman and Nicobar Islands) and
- Overseen by Chief Secretary of Andaman and Nicobar Administration Shri Chetan B Sanghi.
ii. The following participated in the exercise:Coast Guard Ships Viswasth, Vijith, Rajveer, Rajshri, 4 interceptor boats and its air assets Dornier and Chetak helicopters.
Indian Coast Guard:
♦ Motto: We Protect.
♦ Headquarters: New Delhi.
♦ Director General: Mr. Rajendra Singh
Overview of External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj’s 2 day Visit to UAE
- External Affairs Minister Smt. Sushma Swaraj participated in the two day 12th session of the India-UAE Joint Commission Meeting (JCM) for Economic and Technical Cooperation in Abu Dhabi.
- EAM Sushma Swaraj along with the Foreign Minister of the UAE, Sheikh Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan co-inaugurated the Gandhi-Zayed Digital Museum in Abu Dhabi.
- His Highness, the Sultan of Sharjah will visit New Delhi, India, to take part in the Delhi Book Fair as the Guest of Honor which is scheduled to happen in 2019……………………….Click here to Read more
The following MOUs were signed between the two countries:
|Sl. No.||Name of MOU/Agreement||Signatory from Indian Side||Signatory from UAE’s side|
|1||Currency Swap Agreement
(Between the Reserve Bank of Indiaand the Central Bank of the UAE)
|Ambassador of India to UAE, Shri Navdeep Suri||Dy. Governor of Central Bank of UAE|
|2||MoU on Development Cooperation in Africa
(For establishing a Centre of Excellence in Information Technology (CEIT) in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.)
|Secretary (Economic Relations)||Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation|
India claims top ten in list of world’s fastest-growing cities
On 06th December 2018, according to Oxford Economics report, the top 10 fastest growing cities in the world from 2019 to 2035 are in India. Gujarat’s Surat tops the list followed by Uttar Pradesh’s Agra.
i. Surat, a diamond processing and trading center in the western state of Gujarat, will see the fastest expansion through 2035, averaging more than 9 percent.
ii. Agra and Bangalore gets 2nd and 3rd spot respectively.
iii. By 2035, the GDP of Asian countries will be 17 percent higher than all North American and European urban centers combined.
iv. Mumbai was termed as the world’s 12th richest city with a total wealth of $950 billion and India is the 6th largest wealth market in the world (in terms of total wealth held) after USA, China, Japan, Germany and the UK.
v.Among African city is the Tanzanian port of Dar es Salaam is the fastest City, while the top spot in Europe is held by the Armenian capital of Yerevan,San Jose a proxy for Silicon Valley will be best performer in North America.
India inks pact with Iran to pay crude bill in rupee
On 06th December 2018, India has signed an agreement with Iran to pay for crude oil it imports from the Persian Gulf nation in rupees.The memorandum of understanding (MoU) was signed following the US letting India and seven other nations to keep buying Iranian oil despite sanctions were reimposed on the Islamic state on November 5.
i. Indian refiners will make rupee payments in a UCO Bank account of the National Iranian Oil Corp. (NIOC). Earlier India paid its third largest oil supplier in Euros using European banking channels.
ii. Half of these funds would be earmarked for settling payments for exports of Indian goods to Iran.
iii. India had won the exemption from the US after it agreed to cut imports and escrow payments.Under the 180-day exemption, India is allowed to import a maximum of 300,000 barrels a day of crude oil. This compares to an average daily import of about 560,000 barrels this year.
iv. India is the second biggest purchaser of Iranian oil after China and third’s biggest oil consumer.
v. Iran is its third largest supplier after Iraq and Saudi Arabia and meets about 10 percent of total needs.
vi.India, the world’s third biggest oil consumer, meets more than 80 per cent of its oil needs through imports. Iran is its third largest supplier after Iraq and Saudi Arabia and meets about 10 per cent of total needs.
♦ Capital: Tehran
♦ Currency: Iranian Rial
♦ President: Hassan Rouhani
Panama 1st Latin American nation to join Belt and Road Initiative
The Strategic Central American Nation, Panama became the first Latin American Country to join China’s ambitious Belt and Road Initiative after the visit of Chinese President Xi Jinping to Panama.
Chinese President Xi Jinping and his Panamanian counterpart Juan Carlos Varela inked 19 separate deals during the bilateral meeting held on 3rd December.
BANKING & FINANCE
ADB enters an arrangement with World Bank for co-financed projects
On 06th December 2018, Asian Development Bank (ADB) has entered into an arrangement with the World Bank to put in place a single framework that will make co-financed projects more efficient.
ADB’s first Alternative Procurement Arrangement (APA) with the World Bank will allow procedures on co-financed projects to follow a single procurement framework.
i. The APA is a step further towards reducing procurement timelines in line with Strategy 2030. Strategy 2030 is ADB’s long-term plan to respond effectively to the Asia and Pacific region’s changing needs.
ii. In 2017, ADB operations totalled USD 32.2 billion, including USD 11.9 billion in co-financing.
iii. This will lessen the burden on executing and implementing agencies that have traditionally used multiple procurement frameworks on a single project and project implementation.
About World Bank
♦ Headquarter: Washington DC, United States
♦ President: Jim Yong Kim
About Asian Development Bank
♦ Headquarter: Mandaluyong, Philippines
♦ President:Takehiko Nakao
AWARDS & RECOGNITIONS
iPhone artist and film maker Charlotte Prodger won the 2018 Turner Award
On December 5, 2018, Glasgow based artist and film maker Charlotte Prodger won the 2018 Turner Award, Britain’s prestigious contemporary art award, at Tate Britain in London, UK.
ii. She would receive $31,785 or £25,000 as a prize.
iii. The Award was instituted in 1984 by a group named Patrons of Art.
Rattan Lal honoured with Glinka World Soil Prize 2018
On 06th December 2018,Rattan Lal, has won the Glinka World Soil Prize 2018 in a ceremony at the Rome headquarters of the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) for his outstanding contribution to sustainable soil management.
i. Rattan Lal is a distinguished university professor of soil science at the Ohio State University and also the President of the International Union of Soil Science (IUSS).
ii.The Glinka World Soil Prize, named after the pioneering Russian scientist Konstantin D. Glinka, is considered the highest honour in the soil science profession.
iii.He has been listed among the World’s Most Influential Scientific Minds (2012) and among the top one per cent of all researchers in agriculture.
iv. The first World Soil Day Award was on December 05 2018 given to “Practical Action”, Bangladesh for organizing the best World Soil Day celebration in 2017.
iv. The new FAO-established award is funded by Thailand.
About Food and Agriculture Organization:
♦ Headquarter: Rome, Italy
♦ President: Jose Graziano da Silva
APPOINTMENTS & RESIGNS
Atul Sahai appointed as New India Assurance CMD for a 5 year term
On 04th December 2018,the government announced that Atul Sahai will be appointed as Chairman and Managing Director (CMD) of New India Assurance (NIA) for a five year period replacing G Srinivasan.
i. Atul Sahai is currently the General-Manager at Oriental Insurance Company Pvt.ltd(OIC)
ii. New India Assurance country’s largest general insurer posted a 56 percent year-on-year (YoY) drop in its net profit at Rs 3.28 billion for the September 2019 quarter.
iii. Sahai had joined NIA in 1984 and would retire in 2022. He had moved to OIC in 2012 after getting promoted as a DGM.
About New India Insurance
♦ Headquarter: Mumbai
♦ CMD: Atul Sahai
About Oriental Insurance Company
♦ Headquarter: New Delhi
♦ CMD: A V Girija Kumar
Italy won the Ninth edition of International Admiral’s Cup Regatta 2018 held in Ettikulam Beach at Indian Naval Academy (INA), Ezhimala
On 06th December 2018,Italy won the Ninth edition of International Admiral’s Cup Regatta 2018 with their consistent performance in all races held in Ettikulam Beach at Indian Naval Academy (INA), Ezhimala.
Singapore was the runners-up and the defending champion USA came on the third spot.
i. The host INA finished the fourth in overall position.
ii. Team Italy represented by Midshipman Vincenzo Rocco and Midshipman Alberto Cabras.
iii. 1st Lieutenant Ebrahim Showalter from Bahrain stood first in the individual position in the men’s category followed by Midshipman Vincenzo Rocco from Italy and 2nd Lieutenant Dillon How from Singapore at second and third positions respectively..
iv. Midshipman Jessica Mc Jones from the USA stood first in the individual position in women’s category followed by Midshipman Paula Kaminska from Poland and Cadet Francisca Mauricio from Portugal at second and third positions respectively.
v. Vice Admiral RB Pandit, AVSM, Commandant, INA is the chief guest for the closing ceremony.
About Admiral’s Cup Regatta 2018
♦ It was conducted at Ettikulum Bay from 02 December to 06 December 2018. The Regatta will witness participation by teams from 31 foreign Naval Academies competing in the Laser (Radial) class of sail boats.
♦ Bulgaria participated first time in this tournament.
♦ INA Vice Admiral RB Pandit, AVSM, inaugurated the event at an impressive ceremony on the Ettikulam Bay.
About Indian Naval Academy
♦ Location: Ezhimala, Kannur, Kerala, India
♦ Commandant: Vice Admiral RB Pandit
India is fourth highest emitter of carbon dioxide in the world: Study
India is the fourth highest emitter of carbon dioxide in the world, accounting for 7 percent of global emissions in 2017, according to a study by Global Carbon Project on 06th December 2018.
i. The top four emitters in 2017, which covered 58 per cent of global emissions, were China (27 percent), the US (15 percent), the European Union (10 percent) and India (7 percent).The rest of the world contributed 41 per cent last year.
ii. India’s emissions look set to continue their strong growth by an average of 6.3 per cent in 2018, with growth across all fuels including coal (7.1 percent), oil (2.9 percent) and gas (6 percent).
iii. The Indian emissions were projected to grow 2 percent in 2017, compared to 6 per cent per year averaged over the previous decade, due to significant government interventions in the economy.
iv. China, India and the European Union are setting the pace.These regions represent 40 percent of global carbon emissions.They are set to achieve more than what they agreed in the first round of Paris Agreement in 2015.
v. By 2020, India can announce its own fossil-fuel exit strategy and a target date for its peak CO2 emissions.
About Paris Agreement 2015
i. The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), dealing with greenhouse-gas-emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance, starting in the year 2020.
ii. The agreement’s language was negotiated by representatives of 196 state parties at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC in Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015.
iii. The Paris Agreement’s long-term goal is to keep the increase in global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels; and to limit the increase to 1.5°C, since this would substantially reduce the risks and effects of climate change.
Former National Champion Swimmer Arun Kumar Shaw passes away
On 6th December 2018, 80 years old seven time National Champion and first swimmer to win Arjuna Award from Bengal Arun Kumar shaw passed away following a prolonged illness in Kolkata.He won the Arjuna Award in 1967.
He won National championship in 1959, 1962, 1964, 1965-67 and worked as National selector for several years.
Senior Congress MP Mohammad Asrarul Haque passed away at 76
On December 7, 2018, Senior Congress MP and Noted Islamic Scholar Mohammad Asrarul Haque passed away at 76.
i. He was the state president of Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind, a leading Islamic organisation in India.
ii. He was also a member of All India Muslim Personal Law Board and the president of All India Milli Council.
iii. Earlier, he had contested from Bihar’s Kishanganj constituency in 2009 and 2014 general elections.
Indian Armed Force Flag Day – 07 December
On 07 December 2018, Indian Armed Forces Flag Day was observed throughout the nation to honour the martyrs as well as the soldiers who valiantly fight on our borders to safeguard the country from enemy.
Since 1949, 07 December is observed as Indian Armed Forces Flag Day and Government of India has constituted ”Armed Forces Flag Day Fund” for the welfare and rehabilitation of the Ex-servicemen (ESM).
International Civil Aviation Day
December 07 every year is observed as International Civil Aviation Day.The purpose of the annual celebration is to establish and reinforce worldwide awareness of the importance of international civil aviation in the social and economic development of States.
i. This theme was established on a recurring basis for the 2016-2018 ICAO triennium, in order to highlight the enormous transformational power of air connectivity to improve people’s lives.
ii. The International Civil Aviation Day was established in 1994 as part of ICAO’s 50th anniversary activities.
iii. In 1944, participants from 54 nations gathered in Chicago, US had signed Convention on International Civil Aviation, also known more popularly as the ‘Chicago Convention’. Since then, the defining international agreement has permitted global civil aviation system to develop peacefully, in manner benefitting all nations across the world
iv. It was officially declared by the UN in 1996 .
About International Civil Aviation Organization
♦ Headquarter: Montreal,Canada
♦ Secretary-General: Fang Liu